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Other workers have preferred to take more complex functions of the residual error (Pagano and Tiede ) which reduce the influence of extreme values though these methods may require a rather greater knowledge of the expected error order generic levitra super active impotence mayo. The algorithm actually proceeds through two further phases which seek to improve the initial estimate by taking a combination of a smaller set of standards and the parameter limits cheap levitra super active 40 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment tablets. A number of disadvantages must be set against this robustness in the presence of non-Gaussian error purchase levitra super active 40mg free shipping impotence yahoo answers. Testing all possible permutations becomes slow as the number of points increases —this is a version of the well-known “travelling salesman problem” cheap levitra super active online visa erectile dysfunction young men. If the standards do not generally fit the model well then this algorithm will be less successful than an iterative form in the search for a compromise fit. This may be an advantage if a significant change from previously satisfactory assays can be detected. It is possible to remove the screening of estimated parameters before testing the fit and this would allow a wider range of curves at the cost of some diminution in outlier rejection. The algorithm requires explicit functions for each of the parameters to be derived and introduced for any model so limiting the different modes which may be tried. We are currently testing a number of algorithms which may be more generally applicable. It appears likely that the most reliable would be a multi-stage procedure which used the above algorithm to locate the approximate minima, checked for possible outliers and then sought the final minima through a normal iterative search. Assessment of calibration The usual tabulated results of calibration are augmented by two plots. The first shows the estimated calibration curve, the data and the expected error for each standard. This allows the user to check for any gross failures of calibration or excessive curvature between standards. Unfortunately, the details of the residual error can be difficult to distinguish on this type of plot so a second plot gives the residual errors in both response and dose. Again, the expected errors are shown to allow visual comparison with the actual data. An earlier version of the program separated the fitting and graphical routines, introducing a small but discouraging delay (because of the time taken to load disc files) between plotting and restarting calibration if the fit obtained was unsatisfactory. The counts per minute, per cent bound and calculated dose are displayed and printed for each replicate followed by the values for the sample mean. Finally, the mean result is repeated, with any multiplication factor or recovery correction needed, beside the sample number and any out-of-range or replication error flag. Should more than 5% of replicates have been rejected as outliers a warning message is printed. In the current revision of the program assignment to bins occurs during sample calculation to save memory and processing time and the boundaries between bins are determined by the per cent bound for each standard. Where the number of samples is reduced this procedure could give problems when a large number of bins have few degrees of freedom (i. An immediate solution is to merge bins to achieve the required degrees of freedom. In the long term, however, a number of users have suggested the retention of a file which holds the batch of results and errors. If the extra processing time is sufficiently short this allows a more flexible binning which gives near equal degrees of freedom for each bin. The estimate of the error is an estimate of an error which tends to follow a non-Gaussian distribution and should be treated with caution and regarded as an indication of the minimum value. The estimates are important, however, as they inform the user o f a possible change in precision. If the response-error departs significantly from previous estimates then the assayist should consider rejection of the assay or at least re-computation using the new error estimates. Two precision profiles, for the previous and the new batch error are then printed and plotted. It quickly became clear that extensive field testing by outside users was required. Their comments and criticisms over the past months have been an important guide to the continuing development of the program. To some extent this problem can be reduced by good introductory documentation so work is being directed towards producing a user’s manual and short training exercise. This kind of material is also required if the objective of allowing some degree of local modifica tion to meet specific needs is to be achieved. We intend to use the framework used in the first part of this paper to introduce the user to the details of the program’s statistical processing. However, the speed of innovation and low cost of microcomputers mean that consideration must be given to implementation of newer machines. Software costs now exceed hardware costs by an order of magnitude and it is important to reduce the re-writing involved in transferring programs between machines. Edwards commented that full hardware- independence was difficult to achieve given the current variation in apparently standard operating systems and languages. The high cost of program development implied that a well-structured code in a generally available language was important. The former had been successfully transferred to a number of institutions throughout the world over the previous four to five years. In practice, many laboratories would find the purchase of a machine to run the desired programs the most cost-effective way of obtaining data-processing facilities. A low-cost popular microcomputer with appropriate software would be adequate for most immunoassay data processing. Such computers could, moreover, be easily linked to counters or other laboratory devices. Its different operating system and more limited graphical facilities implied, however, that transfer of the program would involve some conversion. He and his colleagues were not in a position to undertake such work, but experience suggested that a person with the necessary skills could complete it in about one week. Edwards emphasized his belief that an understanding of the concepts on which such programs were based was as important as the proper use of the codes themselves. Hunter stressed first the need for a flexible approach to fitting of the standard curve. The program by Raab and McKenzie1 already mentioned could make use of a fifth parameter providing for asymmetry of the fitted logistic curve. He agreed that the fitted curve should not depend on data from one assay alone, but rather on experience accumulated over, say, ten or more assays with the analyte and system concerned. With regard to precision profiles, he stressed that they expressed only one aspect of assay quality, namely precision, and gave no indication of accuracy. Recovery studies, performed by adding the same standards to analyte- free samples provided an additional important means of quality control. While programs such as that of Raab and McKenzie could not be run on existing popular microcomputers, the diminishing costs of hardware would make the needed facilities increasingly available.
Antibacterial activity screening of aqueous extracts against 9 types of pathogenic microorganisms was carried out by employing agar disc diffusion method generic levitra super active 40 mg mastercard impotence therapy. These results indicated their potential usefulness in infected diarrhoea with these three organisms cheap 20mg levitra super active amex causes of erectile dysfunction young males. In conclusion buy levitra super active without prescription impotence yoga pose, aqueous extract of Swertia angustifolia revealed the antidiarrhoeal effect and potential utility in both infected and non-infected diarrhoea states order levitra super active with mastercard erectile dysfunction pills list. Zaw Myo Tint; May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Win Win Maw; Myint Myint Khine; San San Myint; Aung Aung Maw. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemicals, acute toxicity and antidiaharrhoeal activity of 70% ethanolic extract of fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Phytochemicals test showed present of alkaloid, glycoside, reducing sugar, steroid/terpenes, flavonoid, polyphenol and tannin. In-vitro antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated by (1) castor oil-induced diarrhoea test (onset of defecation and number of stools passed), (2) castor oil-induced enteropooling test (weight/volume of accumulated fluid) and (3) castor oil-induced small intestinal transit (passage of charcoal meal). The percent inhibition of intestinal transit was significantly increased standard group (p<0. Evaluation of bioactive organic compounds and antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro methods of Vitis vinifera Linn. Among them, grape seeds and pomegranate seeds have been reported to provide superior antioxidant activity than vitamin C and vitamin E. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant activity from the seeds of locally cultivated Vitis vinifera Linn. In the present work, on silica gel column chromatographic separation a triterpenoid compound: ursolic acid (A, 0. These results were indicative that phenolic compounds of catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid showed good antioxidant power and riterpenoid ursolic acid has low antioxidant property than standard antioxidant vitamin E and vitamin C. Consequently, it can be inferred that catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid are very powerful antioxidants and they are more effective than vitamin C, and ursolic acid has lower anti-oxidant effect than vitamin C. According to this acute toxicity test, there is no acute toxic effects occurred in Grape seeds as well as Pomegranate seeds at maximum permissible dose of 16g/kg b. It was investigated that, Grape and Pomegranate seeds extract showed higher potency activity than isolated compounds in antioxidant activity, because it may be due to the most active compounds that are concentrated in crude extracts. Both Grape and Pomegranate seed extracts showed comparable antioxidant power in in vivo and in vitro methods. It is evident that, Grape and Pomegranate seeds extracts contain high level of antiradical phytochemical constituents and they could used as the free radical scavengers to prevent the oxidative damage of diseases. From the present result obtained, chief sources of two locally cultivated Grape and Pomegranate seeds could be safely used as anti-oxidative agents for the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals. Twelve indigenous plant extracts were tested on 5 strains of Escherichia coli, three strains of Shigellae, and one strain each of Klebsiella aeruginosa, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Proteus morganii, Pseudomonas pyocyanes, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae for in vitro study. Of the 12 indigenous plant extracts tested, Ageratum conyzoides (Hkwathaipan) was active on four species of tested bacteria; Coleus aromaticus (Ziyaywetthu) on six bacteria species; Cuminum cyminum (Ziyasai) on two bacteria species; Embilica officinalis (Zibyuthee) on 11 bacteria species; Foeniculum vulgare (Samonsaba) on 1 bacteria specie; Nyctanthes arbortristis (Seikphaluywet) on six bacteria species; Piper betle (Kunywet) on 14 bacteria species; Piper nigrum (Ngayokkaungsai) on five bacteria species; Terminalia chebula (Pangathee) on 11 bacteria species; Vinca rosea (Thinbawmahnyoywet) on 5 bacteria species. Staphylococcus aureus strain was artifically infected on open wounds in experimental rats and topical application of plant extracts in paraffin was applied for in Nyctanthes arbor-tristis accelerated the rate of wound healing without formation of pus. The purpose of the investigation is to study the anti-asthmatic effect of some traditional medicinal plant extracts which are claimed for their therapeutic values in the treatment of asthma in Myanmar. The efficacy and mechanism of action of five reputed bronchodilating traditional medicinal plant extracts were studied on the in vitro guinea-pig tracheal chain model. Since this study indicated that the relaxant action found was neither mediated through antihistaminic effect nor anti 5 hydroxytrytamine effects, it may probably act through direct relaxant action on the tracheal smooth muscle. Experimental evaluation of biological and anti-mycobacterial activities of medicinal plants. Khin Chit; Win Myint; Ti Ti; Kyi Thein; Win Win Maw; Mar Mar Myint; Kyaw Myint; Aye Aye Thein; Aye Than; Myo Khin. Anti-mycobacterial activity of plant extracts were evaluated by in vitro screening. Chemical screening of the active plant extracts was also conducted by standard procedures described for the detection of organic constituents. Some of the plant extracts were found to have antimycobacterial activity even on strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin. This was important preliminary information for the use of natural products in the treatment of tuberculosis. Experimental screening for anti-peptic ulcer activity of some Myanmar traditional medicine formulations. Measuring gastric juice acidity in rats employing pyloric ligation confirmed that these 3 drugs did reduce gastric acidity, particularly diminishing the free acid 1/3 and shifting gastric pH from 6 to 7. Handbook of botanical and physico-chemical characterization of Myanmar traditional medicine formulation. Botanical characterization and physico-chemical standardization of the 39 traditional medicine formulations (covering all plant ingredients investigated) are presented in this book. The main aim of this research work is to evaluate scientifically on the hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. It was found in acute toxicity study that ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The hepatoprotective effect of extract was studied on thirty albino rats of both sexes weighing 180 to 200g. The liver tissues were sent for histological examinations to look for degeneration and necrosis. The purpose of present study was to evaluate scientifically on the hepatoprotective effect of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. In this study, aqueous extraction, pharmacological screening test, phytochemical analysis, physico-chemical analysis, acute toxicity and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. The result indicated that there was no lethality of the mice even with maximum permissible dose at the dose of 16g/kg. The hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. In this study, control parallel experimental study design was performed Pharmacology Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar). There were no significant changes in histopathological findings except in degenerative changes. The purpose of present study was to evaluate scientifically on the hepatoprotective activity of Spilanthes acmella Murr. In this study, aqueous extraction, acute toxicity, pharmacological screening test, phytochemical constituent’s analysis, physicochemical analysis and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of whole plant of Yellow-bizat were carried out. In this study, control parallel experimental study design was done in Pharmacology Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar).
Aortic rupture of unknown etiology in a six-month-old female ostrich that died Color 48 buy discount levitra super active line impotence after robotic prostatectomy. The site where the aneurysm Uric acid deposits in the eyelid of a rhea formed between the intima and media of that died from renal failure levitra super active 40mg generic erectile dysfunction treatment natural food. A of uric acid were also noted on the tongue discount levitra super active online erectile dysfunction treatment medicine, copper deficiency has been discussed as a thoracic and cervical vertebrae buy generic levitra super active 20mg erectile dysfunction injection drugs, heart, ven- possible cause of this lesion. The phallus is firm, conical in shape, curves to the left and has a prominent seminal groove. It has been suggested that this site may be inappropriate for the administration of nephrotoxic or renally ex- creted drugs because of the renal portal system. However, in one study involving the clearance of aminoglycoside, there was no difference in plasma levels when the drug was given in the posterior or anterior portions of the body. Adult Bird Management insurance company requirements for identification and provide unmistakable identification for record keeping purposes. Identification Nutrition It is suggested that all ratites be permanently iden- Numerous pelleted rations are commercially avail- tified. Most of these are locally produced dramatically illustrated by a case in which an ostrich and are highly variable in content and quality. Infor- was identified on a health certificate as an “African mation on the specific nutritional requirements of black” and was insured for twenty thousand dollars. In South Africa, range-raised os- The bird died, and at necropsy the veterinarian iden- triches are fed on alfalfa pastures supplemented with tified the bird as a “blue-necked” ostrich, and the maize. The insurance company de- of health and reproduction when fed a diet that con- clared that the dead bird was not insured. Diets The implantation of a microchip provides one fail- with 18% protein produced the best weight gains in safe method of identification. Sterilized microchips one small nutritional study that compared only the effects of varying levels of protein. These Several commercial ratite foods are available with 18 chips help in the recovery of stolen birds, satisfy most to 23% protein and greater than 10% fiber. Male ostriches are particularly aggres- tional deficiencies are unlikely in birds that are fed a sive during the breeding season and must be handled pelleted ration supplemented with good quality graz- with caution. Many basic procedures can be per- The adequacy of the breeder diet is reflected in the formed in these confined areas without the need for eggs produced. Vitamin and trace mineral deficiencies The natural defense of ratites is the kick, enhanced can result in nutrient-deficient eggs. Charac- straight forward at chest level to the bird, followed teristic lesions may be noted at various stages of by a downward sweep of the foot. Gastrointesti- waries may kick either forward or backward and may nal or other systemic disease may affect nutritional incorporate wide lateral swings into the range of uptake and metabolism, resulting in nutrient-defi- motion. Hypovitaminosis A has been described in rhea chicks with clinical signs of epiphora, oral abscesses and When physical restraint is necessary, it is best to decreased growth. Working with to have been corrected with supplemental vitamin untrained birds is an exercise in patience. The sleeve is placed over the arm, the bird is grasped by the In a group of ostrich chicks fed crushed corn, hypovi- beak and the sleeve is then inverted over the head of taminosis E was suspected to have been the cause of the ostrich. Vitamin4 herd’s hook can also be used to grasp the ostrich E and selenium deficiencies also may occur in birds around the neck and lower the head, but the handler fed locally produced foods from regions with low lev- must be prudent of potential injuries to himself or els of selenium in the soil. Manganese deficiencies have been associated with Ostriches may also be restrained without a hood if slipped tendons in gallinaceous birds, but a defi- one person holds the head and neck horizontal to the ciency of this mineral has not been associated with ground while a second person provides upward and porosis in ratite chicks. Grasping ostriches by probably multifactorial, with decreased exercise, ge- the wings is a common cause of fractures and paraly- netics and diets of high fat and protein all being sis. Ratites are large fractious birds that can easily injure themselves or attendants. One side of the standard horse trailer is suitable to accom- episode can be improved by performing the procedure plish most procedures on an adult ostrich. Injectable agents are chion is used in the commercial feather industry to adequate for short procedures such as wound repair restrain ostriches for the clipping and plucking of or casting in large birds. Induction time is less than 15 seconds, the shoulders and a bar to be positioned behind the and cardiac and respiratory functions are well main- legs and below the pelvis, thus restricting the bird’s tained. Ketamine alone gives unacceptable kg) is face mask induction with four per cent isoflu- results. A smoother recovery from injectable agents rane, followed by intubation and maintenance at two may be facilitated by the administration of aza- to three percent levels. Large, shaded areas, padded with mats or straw and clear of objects or walls within reach of the flailing legs can be used for recovery. Alternatively, a bird may be packed in a crate that is heavily padded with straw to restrict extension and flailing of the legs. Be- cause ratites respire with lateral ex- cursions of the chest, the sternal posi- tion for recovery is preferred. Adults should remain be intubated with standard, cuffed endotracheal tubes that are available for small animals hooded with minimal disturbances. When the bird sits sternally with the head held upright, the hood should then be removed. In one study of ostriches, induction Transportation with tiletamine/zolazepam at a dose of 4. Excessively large trailers with slippery induced with low doses of tiletamine-zolazepam by surfaces have been a leading cause of injury and intravenous administration and maintained on mortality. Chicks and juveniles may be transported either 2 to 4% halothane or 2 to 4% isoflurane. Ma- by land or air most safely if confined to small individ- ture ostriches can be intubated using 14 to 18 mm ual crates. Intermit- are outlined in the International Air Transportation tent positive pressure ventilation can be performed Association live animal regulations and container with a peak pressure of 15 to 20 cm of H2O. The individual compartment of a volume of ratites is considered to be 10 to 15 ml/kg. Haul- ing birds at night tends to keep them calm and Bradycardia, apnea, hypercapnia, hypocapnia and reduces the possibility of overheating. In another group of Adult ostriches are maintained in outdoor pad- anesthetized ostriches, the mean blood pressure was docks. Fencing should be approxi- mately two meters tall, clearly visible to a running bird and designed so that the feet or neck cannot become entangled within the fence. The bottom of the fence can be raised 40 cm from the ground to prevent the bird’s legs and feet from becoming entangled. Stranded wire fence (barbed or smooth) should never be used for ratites (Figure 48. Wood corrals, 2 x 4" field fencing, chain-link fence or pipe fencing are all effective. Electric fencing may be necessary to prevent terrestrial predators from entering the compound. Placing the food and water station in the fence line with a flap to allow access without entering the paddock is the easiest way to maintain ostriches.
For example buy levitra super active 20 mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction see urologist, squamous cell carcinomas arise in organs that are normally lined by stratified squamous epithelium purchase levitra super active with amex erectile dysfunction treatment in bangalore. That is purchase generic levitra super active online erectile dysfunction drug warnings, sites associated with the development of squamous cell carcinoma include the skin purchase discount levitra super active on line erectile dysfunction medicine in dubai, lung, esophagus, and cervix. Adenocarcinomas arise from glandular epithelium, and therefore sites associated with the development of adenocarcinoma include the lung, colon, stomach, prostate, and endometrium. Sites for transitional cell carcinoma include the urinary bladder and kidney (renal pelvis). Two types of cancer associated with special sites include clear cell carcinoma and signet cell carcinoma. In this malignancy the cells infiltrate individually instead of forming recognizable glandular structures. Each individual cell is filled with a large drop of mucin, which pushes the nucleus to the side, giv- ing it the appearance of a signet ring. The protein product of a proto-oncogene is often a growth factor, a growth factor receptor, or a protein kinase. A cel- lular proto-oncogene may function as a cellular oncogene (c-onc) if it pro- duces more of its protein product than it normally should. These normal cellular proto-oncogenes may become oncogenic (tumor-forming) by sev- eral mechanisms, including gene mutations, translocations, amplification, or interaction with viruses. The fast way involves first incorporating these proto-oncogenes into the genome of acute-transforming retroviruses by a process called retroviral transduc- General Pathology Answers 139 tion. It is important to note also that these acute-transforming viruses do not contain the pol gene, so they cannot replicate on their own. Proto-oncogenes may also become oncogenic via slow-transforming viruses, which by chance can be inserted near a proto-oncogene. Mutation of the ras gene is the single most common abnormality of dominant onco- genes in human tumors and is found in about one-third of all human tumors. Normal ras protein (p21) flips back and forth between an acti- vated, signal-transmitting form and an inactive state. Normal cellular genes (proto-oncogenes) may become oncogenic by being 140 Pathology incorporated into the viral genome (forming v-oncs), or they may be acti- vated by other processes to form cellular oncogenes (c-oncs). These other processes include gene mutations, chromosomal translocations, and gene amplifications. Gene mutations, such as point mutations, are associated with the formation of cancers by mutant c-ras oncogenes. Chromosomal translocations are associated with the development of many types of can- cers, one example of which is Burkitt’s lymphoma. The most common translocation associated with Burkitt’s lymphoma is t(8;14), in which the c-myc oncogene on chromosome 8 is brought in contact with the immuno- globulin heavy chain gene on chromosome 14. The former involves the proto-oncogene c-abl, which is rearranged in proximity to a break point cluster region (bcr) on chromosome 22. The resultant chimeric c-abl/bcr gene encodes a protein with tyrosine kinase activity. Expression of the oncogene bcl-2 is associated with the prevention of apoptosis in germi- nal centers. Examples of associations that involve gene amplification include N-myc and neuroblastoma, c-neu and breast cancer, and erb-B and breast and ovarian cancer. Gene amplifications can be demonstrated by finding doublet minutes or homogenous staining regions. In general, these tumor suppressor genes encode proteins that can function as cell surface mole- cules, regulators of signal transduction, or regulators of nuclear transcrip- tion. Products of these genes are found within the nucleus and are involved in regulation of the cell cycle. The product of the Rb gene is a nuclear phosphoprotein that reg- General Pathology Answers 141 ulates the cell cycle at several points. It exists as an active unphosphorylated form (pRb) and an inactive phosphorylated form (pRb-P). The active unphosphorylated form (pRb) normally stops the cell cycle at G1 going to S. It does this by binding to transcription factors such as the product of c-myc and the E2F protein. Inactivation of the pRb stop signal causes the cell to continually cycle and undergo repeated mitosis. The p53 gene, located on chromosome 17, is the single most common target for genetic alterations in human cancers. These patients have an increased incidence of skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, characterized by thrombo- cytopenia and eczema, is an immunodeficiency disease associated with an increased incidence of lymphomas and acute leukemias. Familial polyposis is characterized by the formation of numerous neoplastic adenomatous colon polyps. These individuals have a 100% risk of developing colorectal car- cinoma unless surgery is performed. Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare congenital disorder associated with venous angiomatous masses in the lep- tomeninges and ipsilateral port-wine nevi of the face. The highest rates for gastric carcinoma are found in Japan, Chile, China, and Russia, while it is much less com- mon in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and France. The high rates for gastric cancer in Japan might be related to dietary factors, such as eating smoked and salted foods. Other examples of geographic variations in the incidence of neoplasms include nasopharyngeal carci- noma, liver cancer, and trophoblastic disease. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, associated with the Epstein-Barr virus, is rare in most parts of the world, except for parts of the Far East, especially China. Liver cancer is associated with both hepatitis B infection and high levels of aflatoxin B1. Trophoblastic diseases, including choriocarcinoma, have high rates of occurrence in the Pacific rim areas of Asia. These tumor markers include hor- mones, oncofetal antigens, isozymes, proteins, mucins, and glycoproteins. It is used clinically to follow up patients with certain malignan- cies, such as colon cancer, and to evaluate them for recurrence or metas- tases. Herpes simplex type 2, a sexually transmitted viral disease, results in the formation of vesicles that ulcerate and cause burning, itching, and pain. These lesions heal spontaneously, but the virus remains dormant in the lumbar and sacral ganglia.