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State cheap 100 ml duphalac overnight delivery medicine journey, 414 Quality Assurance Standards order duphalac us 97140 treatment code, 113 Cremains buy duphalac overnight medications jaundice, 180 discount duphalac 100 ml without a prescription medicine man movie, 183, 392 Commonwealth v. State, 22, 307, 308–309, 365, 390, conducting fnal survey in, 403–404 391, 393, 411 diagram or sketch, 399–401 Doyle v. State, 420 399 Drug intoxication, 55 preparing for, 396 Drug-related death, 51, 55 recording and collecting in, 402–403 DuBoise v. State, 415 Forensic dentist(s) Friction ridge skin, 83–84 civil litigation and, 385–388 bifurcations, 84 as defendants, 388 comparison and identifcation of as expert witness defendants, 390 impressions of, 86–89 as expert witnesses, 388 detail and structure, 84 as fact witnesses, 388 dividing ridges, 84 malpractice, 381, 386, 388–389 ending ridges, 84 personal injury litigation, 389–390 individuality, 88–89 Forensic dentistry inspecting and cleansing, 90 certifying organizations and methodology in examination of, 86–87 certifcation, 407–409 analysis, 86 dry fngered, 25 comparison, 86–87 forensic identifcation and, 4–8 evaluation, 87 history, 12–23 exclusion, 87 legal issues in, 384–392 individualization, 87 case law, 390–392 verifcation, 87 civil litigation, 385–388 persistency, 89 expert witnesses, 384–385 reconditioning compromised, 90–94 index 431 recording postmortem impressions, Human identifcation. See Identifcation of 94–96 remains ridge arrangements, 84–85 Human remains substructure, 84 adolescent, 144 Frye v. State, 419 of children, 144 fetal, 144 G medicolegal signifcance, 140 of young adults, 144 Garrison v. State, 414 age determination in, 144–146 Gross, Winfeld, 16–17 birthmarks in, 67 Guerin, 14 circumstances of death as aid to, 64–65 Gunshot injury, 150–151 establishing positive, 63–64 Gustafson method, 281–284 external characteristics in, 66–70 fngerprints and, 79–100 (See also H Fingerprint(s)) human vs. Constitution and, 382 Incised wound, 345 criminal litigation, 380 Injured skin, 207–211 Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry Injury patterns, 203–204 analyzer, 55 in blunt trauma, 374 Litaker v. State, 412 Missing Person File, 75 Milone, Richard, 320–322 Unidentifed Person File, 75 Milone v. Milone, 307, 312, 316, 320–322, Organ dissection, 54 366, 411 Osteon fragments, 146 People v. Krone, 308, 316 112, 130–131 index 435 Pregnancy, abuse during, 371–372 Shoulder, bitemarks, 221, 230, 337, 347, 374 Pseudoborne objects, 139 Simmons v. Sager, 411 root resorption, 283 index 437 root transparency, 283 Unidentifed persons, 76 secondary dentin, 282 United State v. Randolph Valentino Kills in Water, Tooth decay, 182 419 Tooth eruption/tooth emergence, 264–269 U. Studnicka, 420 Tooth mineralization, 269–279 Tooth numbering system, 20 Tooth wear, 286–288 V Torgerson, Frederick Fasting, 316–320 Valenti v. State, 421 death-induced, 45, 50, 55 Vinyl polysiloxane, 340 detection, 55 disfgurement due to, 61 emotional, of family members, 164 W evidence, 53 Wade v. State, 413 facial, 61, 164, 369, 375 Walsh, Caroline, 14 inficted, 370, 372 Walters v. State, 418 perimortem, 150–154 Warren Joseph, 13 postmortem, 154–155 Washington v. Several programs are available that provide three-dimensional rendering of the soft tissue. There are two green sensitive pixels for each red and blue pixel because the human eye is more sensitive to green. Strickland, Executive editor While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the infor- mation presented in this publication, Gale Group does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Errors brought to the attention of the Christine Jeryan, Managing editor publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be cor- Melissa C. Deirdre Blanchfield, Assistant editor This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable Mark Springer, Editorial Technical Trainer copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair com- petition, and other applicable laws. Yarrow, Manager, Multimedia and imaging have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one content or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, Robyn V. Young, Senior editor, Imaging acquisitions expression, arrangement, and classification of the information. Robert Duncan, Senior imaging specialist All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended. Kenn Zorn, Product design manager Copyright 2001 Marie Claire Krzewinski, Cover design Gale Group Marie Claire Krzewinski and Michelle DiMercurio, 27500 Drake Rd. Melson, Buyer Tables by Mark Berger, Standley Publishing, Ferndale, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Michigan The Gale encyclopedia of psychology / Bonnie R. Slap Dianne Daeg de Mott Jane Spear Jill De Villiers Laurence Steinberg Marie Doorey Judith Turner Catherine Dybiec Holm Cindy Washabaugh Lindsay Evans Janet A. This number repre- • See also references at the end of entries point the sents one-third more entries than the first edition. Almost terms is included to help the reader understand key 65% of the entries are entirely new or updated concepts. Almost everyone seems interested in understand- first looked at the stars to predict and control their des- ing his or her own behavior, as well as the actions of oth- tiny and the science of astronomy was born. Psychology is, by far, the most popular of the social ics was necessary to count and measure, and eventually and behavioral sciences and one of the most attractive to the physical sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and bi- those who are interested in knowing more about people ology, emerged. It has only been a bit over a centu- gy has been one of the most popular majors for over ry since scientists and philosophers turned their eyes three decades, and students are more likely to take an from the planets to people and tried to understand human elective course in psychology than one from any other behavior in a systematic, scientific way. Not surprisingly, psychology has also become a century, philosophers and physiologists began to exam- popular high school offering. How do individuals use their senses of Initially, psychology courses at the secondary school sight, hearing, and touch to make sense of the world? We are living in In the late second half of the 1800s, a number of times of dramatic social change. Each of us continually young North American men and a few women traveled faces new challenges about how we will make our place in to Germany to study with Wilhelm Wundt, who had es- the world. As the discipline of psychology matured, ad- tablished a laboratory and the first graduate program of justment courses gave way to substantive content courses study in psychology at the University of Leipzig in Ger- that offered not just psychology’s latest findings about de- many. They returned to teach psychology and train other velopmental and identity issues, but also featured those students in the major universities of this country with the more traditional areas of cognitive, experimental, physio- intent of quantifying individual differences and impor- logical, and social psychology. The advances in the scientific side lished a Psychological Clinic at the University of Penn- of psychology were paralleled by the remarkable growth sylvania to help children who were having difficulty in of counseling, clinical, and school psychology. To keep up with the rapidly expanding field, the Being a psychologist, he assumed that his new pro- newly revised second edition of the Gale Encyclopedia fession—dedicated to learning and memory—would of Psychology has added about a third more entries and help him assist children who were having trouble read- biographies. Coverage includes the key concepts on ing, writing, spelling, and remembering information. Clinical information is broadly plex, theoretical notions within the experimental labora- covered, noting the various psychological theories and tories, and he turned to schoolteachers and social work- techniques currently in use and the scientific evidence ers for practical advice. Biographical profiles of major figures in the field of psychology are included, ranging from the Thus began the long struggle between the scientific earliest historical pioneers to current clinicians. On the battle- experiments are valid and replicable (that is, others pur- field, clinicians were helping troops who were experienc- suing the same questions with appropriate methods ing “traumatic neurosis, ” originally called “shell shock” would find the same results). They sometimes feel that in the First World War and now known as post-traumatic clinicians, for example, use psychotherapy techniques stress disorder. When the soldiers returned home, they led that have not been proven to be useful and may even be therapy groups for wounded military personnel. The Veteran’s Hospitals, in The earliest psychologists worked primarily with chil- particular, needed well-trained personnel to provide men- dren, usually those who were delinquent or having trouble tal health services for their patients. They were particularly taken with assessing in- ence held in Boulder, Colorado established standards of telligence and translated a test developed by a Frenchman, education and training for clinical psychologists. They began testing soldiers recruited for the First internship and receive the Ph.
As an example purchase duphalac now medicine x ed, though used as a basis for positive identifcation for years buy duphalac 100 ml free shipping treatment 911, comparison of ante- and postmortem frontal sinus x-rays has only recently been validated 100 ml duphalac with visa medications you can take while nursing. Te main reasons for esti- mating the postmortem interval are (1) the inclusion or exclusion of suspects discount duphalac 100 ml otc medications jejunostomy tube, (2) reduction of the number of possible matches in a database, and (3) deter- mination of the forensic signifcance of a set of remains, i. On most occasions, when an anthropologist is asked to deter- mine the postmortem interval, the decedent will have been dead for weeks to years. Ideally, the remains will be pristine, and it is for this reason that many examiners prefer to attend the recovery, whether it may be an exhumation, collection of scattered bones, or even submerged remains. Te anthropolo- gist may supervise and document the process, collecting relevant samples, e. But, most importantly, he or she will want to assess the remains in context before any processing occurs. General observations will include corporal (from the body) as well as environmental information: What is the quantity and qual- ity of the remains? What are the characteristics of the local weather, terrain, water sources, and fauna, all of which will infuence the rate of decomposition or disassembly of remains? In addition to these two major sources of information, there are two general approaches to timing a death: rate methods and concurrence methods. Te degree to which bone has lost mineral and organic content, the change in sound or electrical conduction properties of bone, changes in specifc gravity, and the amount of total lipid lost are examples of features that change with documentable rates. Te details of these and other rate techniques are beyond the scope of this discussion, but may be found elsewhere. Concurrence estimates of the postmortem interval depend upon establishing an association between the remains and an object or event for which time can be fxed. An individual will not have died before the most recently minted coins in his pockets; there may be a scattering of leaves upon the body from nearby trees, which places its death before leaf fall, a natural event whose timing will be known to local botanists. Te state or type of clothing may reveal season of death as well as time of day or night, etc. When an elderly decomposing, mummifed, or even skeletonized individual is discovered indoors, one ofen need look no further than the oldest letter in the mailbox. Because the estimate may be used to establish or exclude possible matches, or entered into a data- base along with other information, it is better to err on the side of more inclusive estimates than to exclude a true match through overconfdence. Most of the other decedents were, as expected, represented by little more than dental frag- ments and cofn splinters. Just short of proclaiming the burial a much more recent one, he was reminded of an almost identical experience described by William Bass, who in the 1970s encountered similar fndings in a Civil War era burial. When the anthropologist is asked to examine remains at the end of this process with little or no reliable information about context or procedure, it is prudent to refrain from any except the most general estimate of postmortem interval. While recognizing that there are far more causes of death that will not be 150 Forensic dentistry reported by the hard tissues, those that do afect the skeleton or dentition rep- resent the most enduring kind of evidence. Hard tissue injuries are designated as antemortem, perimortem, or postmortem according to time of occurrence. Te classic examples are oral or orthopedic pathologies and their respective treatments, prostheses, etc. Some chronic antemortem conditions may extend to the end of life, and on a few occasions, may even contribute to death. Obviously, such fndings assume added importance when a clear cause of death can- not be shown. A skeleton with a pacemaker beneath the disarticulated bones of the thorax was recently encountered by the author. Subsequent tracking of the serial number identifed an elderly decedent with a long history of cardiovascular disease. Tough not as diagnostic as an atheromatous set of coronary arteries in the hands of a pathologist the day afer death, the fnd- ing suggests, at least, a contributing cause. Te most frequently encountered fatal perimortem defects are induced by gunshot, blade, or a blunt object forcibly applied. As a two-phase material (calcium hydroxyapatite and collagen), bone withstands compression and stretch. Under slow loading of force, the struck surface compresses while the opposite side stretches. Because bone is weaker under tensile forces, the stretched side fails frst, ofen producing concentric cracking (as in the fat bones of the skull) or concoidal (wedge-shaped) fracture lines emanating from the point of failure. Under rapid loading (as in a bullet strike), the bone responds as a brittle material. In the latter instance one may see radiating cracks across the bone surface, or none at all. In most instances, given an adequate sample of remains, one should be able to determine (1) entry and exit sites, (2) the approximate angle Forensic anthropology 151 of entry of a projectile, (3) the order of entry defects if in the same surface, and (4) an approximation of caliber, or at least the elimina- tion of certain calibers. Because the sof tissue has disappeared, and because garments may not be available for inspection, determin- ing range of fre is ofen not possible. Except when a projectile has struck an intermediate target, the entry defect should provide, at least in one dimension, the approximate diameter (caliber) of the round. Variations in the shape of an entry from circular to elliptical report the approximate angle of entry. Usually, the exit defect will be irregular and somewhat larger than the entry because of deformation of the round during its transit through the target. Both entry and exit bevels will have edges that slope approximately 45° from the incident angle. Tis feature owes to the manner in which fracture lines propa- gate through the hydroxyapatite crystal. Notable exceptions to this rule include the keyhole defect produced by a low-angle strike tangent to the skull. Although the round may not enter the skull, a bevel is produced on both the outer and inner surfaces. Detailed descriptions of the interaction of projectiles and bone may be found in several sources65 (DiMaio 2003, 175–83). If garments accompany the remains, they should be examined for defects over- laying any ballistic injuries for possible indications of range of fre, such as soot or scorching. Ballistic metal usually transfers some of its substance to the bone through which it passes. Rounds entering the body and skull are ofen fragmented as they strike bone tissue. For this reason, remains believed to contain ballistic materials should be radiographed before an examination begins. When this is the case, following x-ray, the skull should be opened and examined to determine the path of the round and to retrieve it for ballistic examination. Blade injury: When death appears to be the result of sharp force injury, a close examination of all bone surfaces is imperative. Imagine the torso from chin to the pubic bones (the vital area), then picture the subtending bones (vertebrae, sternum, ribs, clavicles, scapulae) painted upon this surface. When the torso is morphed into a round target, and the underlying bones into a bull’s-eye, the latter com- prises about 65 to 75% of the target. In theory, in a fatal blade injury one would expect bone to be marked 152 Forensic dentistry in the majority of such cases.
Drowsiness 100 ml duphalac for sale symptoms inner ear infection, dizziness proven 100 ml duphalac medications elderly should not take, headache * Ensure that client does not participate in activities that require alertness discount generic duphalac uk medications prescribed for anxiety, or operate dangerous machinery buy on line duphalac medications you can take during pregnancy. Some physicians prescribe a small dose of beta-blocker pro- pranolol to counteract this effect. Hypotension; arrhythmias; pulse irregularities * Monitor vital signs two or three times a day. Drowsiness; dizziness * Ensure that client does not operate dangerous machin- ery or participate in activities that require alertness. Blood dyscrasias * Ensure that client understands the importance of regular blood tests while receiving anticonvulsant therapy. Prolonged bleeding time (with valproic acid) * Ensure that platelet counts and bleed time are deter- mined before initiation of therapy with valproic acid. Risk of severe rash (with lamotrigine) * Ensure that client is informed that he or she must report evidence of skin rash to physician immediately. Decreased efﬁcacy of oral contraceptives (with topiramate) * Ensure that client is aware of decreased efﬁcacy of oral contraceptives with concomitant use. Drowsiness; dizziness * Ensure that client does not operate dangerous machin- ery or participate in activities that require alertness. Hypotension; bradycardia * Take vital signs just before initiation of therapy and before daily administration of the medication. Constipation * Encourage increased ﬂuid (if not contraindicated) and ﬁber in the diet. Drowsiness; dizziness * Ensure that client does not operate dangerous machin- ery or participate in activities that require alertness. Dry mouth; constipation * Provide sugarless candy or gum, ice, and frequent sips of water. Provide foods high in ﬁber; encourage physical activity and ﬂuid if not contraindicated. Observe for the appear- ance of symptoms of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness at any time during therapy. The physician will administer orders for tapering the drug when therapy is to be discontinued. Increase by 20 to 50 mg every 3 to 4 days until effective dose is reached, usually 200 to 400 mg/ day. Increase gradually over several days (up to 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours in severe cases). Hospitalized patients with schizophrenia: 8 to 16 mg 2 to 4 times a day, not to exceed 64 mg/day. Gradually increase dosage by small increments over 2 or 3 days to 50 to 75 mg/day. Once effective response has been achieved, may reduce gradually to determine the minimum maintenance dose. Increase gradually until therapeutic effect has been achieved or maximum dose of 3 mg/kg/day has been reached. Usual optimum dosage range: 15 to 20 mg/day, although a few may require 40 mg/day or more. Other effects may be due to an- tagonism of histamine H1 receptors and alpha1-adrenergic receptors. Antipsychotic Agents ● 483 Contraindications and Precautions: Loxapine ● Contraindicated in: hypersensitivity; comatose or severe drug-induced depressed states; clients with blood dyscrasias; hepatic, renal, or cardiac insufﬁciency; severe hypotension or hypertension; children, pregnancy, and lactation (safety not established) ● Use cautiously in: patients with epilepsy or history of sei- zures; glaucoma; urinary retention; respiratory insufﬁciency; prostatic hypertrophy; elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis (black box warning). Orally dis- integrating tablets only: Phenylketonuria (orally disintegrating tablets contain aspartame) ● Use cautiously in: hepatic insufﬁciency, elderly clients (reduce dosage), pregnancy and children (safety not established), car- diovascular or cerebrovascular disease, history of glaucoma, history of seizures, history of attempted suicide, prostatic hypertrophy, diabetes or risk factors for diabetes, narrow an- gle glaucoma, history of paralytic ileus; elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis (black box warning). Quetiapine ● Contraindicated in: hypersensitivity; lactation ● Use cautiously in: cardiovascular or cerebrovascular dis- ease; dehydration or hypovolemia (increased risk of hypoten- sion); hepatic impairment; hypothyroidism; history of suicide attempt; pregnancy or children (safety not established); patients with diabetes or risk factors for diabetes; elderly pa- tients with dementia-related psychosis (black box warning). Concomitant use with lorazepam (and possibly other benzodiazepines) may result in respiratory depres- sion, stupor, hypotension, and/or respiratory or cardiac arrest. Increased hypotension ﬂ u o x e t i n e , rifampin), with antihypertensive agents. Olanzapine Fluvoxamine, Carbamazepine, Decreased effects of levodopa ﬂ u o x e t i n e omeprazole, and dopamine agonists. Quetiapine Cimetidine; Phenytoin, Decreased effects of levodopa ketoconazole, thioridazine and dopamine agonists. Increase dosage fairly rapidly over the ﬁrst 7 to 10 days until symptoms are controlled. Dosage should be maintained at the lowest level effective for controlling symptoms. May increase dosage by 25 to 50 mg/day over a period of 2 weeks to a target dose of 300 to 450 mg/day. If required, make additional increases in increments of 100 mg not more than once or twice weekly to a maximum dosage of 900 mg/day in 3 divided doses. The mean and median doses are approximately 600 mg/day for schizophrenia and 300 mg/day for reducing recurrent suicidal behavior. If for a 6-month period the counts remain within the acceptable level for the biweekly period, counts may then be monitored every 4 weeks there- after. May increase in increments of 1 to 2 mg/day at intervals of 24 hours to a recommended dose of 4 to 8 mg/day. After clinical assessment, dose increases may be made at intervals of more than 5 days. May increase dosage by intervals of at least 2 days up to a dosage of 80 mg 2 times a day. Adjust dosage on the basis of toleration and efﬁcacy within the range of 40 to 80 mg 2 times a day. Maintenance dosage: 10 to 30 mg/day (maintain at lowest effective dose for symptom remission). Dosage increases should not be made before 2 weeks, the time required to achieve steady state. Maintenance dosage: 10 to 30 mg/day (maintain at lowest effective dose for symptom remission). The safety of doses above 10 mg 2 times a day has not been evaluated in clinical trials. The safety of doses above 10 mg 2 times a day has not been evaluated in clinical trials. Risk for activity intolerance related to medication side effects of sedation, blurred vision, and/or weakness. Noncompliance with medication regimen related to suspi- ciousness and mistrust of others. Nursing implica- tions related to each side effect are designated by an asterisk (*). A proﬁle of side effects comparing various antipsychotic medi- cations is presented in Table 28-1.
Eccrine gland Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 125 Answers to Questions on the Skin The following are answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter best duphalac 100 ml symptoms of high blood pressure. This layer also is called the stratum germinativum generic duphalac 100 ml with amex 7r medications, but a simpler memory tool is simply to associate it with the “base” of the epidermis purchase 100 ml duphalac amex symptoms 1dpo. Here’s a fun experiment: Turn off the lights generic duphalac 100 ml overnight delivery treatment kidney infection, press your fingers together, and hold a flashlight under them. The description in this question sounds like a tough structure, so it may help you to remember that the reticular layer is what’s used to make leather from animal hides. Keratohyalin even- tually becomes keratin, so think of the layer where the cells are starting to die off. Reticular means net-like; it makes sense that this netting lies between the dermis and the hypodermis. Ever noticed how kids have more freckles at the end of a long summer spent outdoors? While it’s true that sev- eral different nerves are involved in the overall sense of touch, the Meissner’s are the most responsive to touch. Specific temperatures may seem tough to remember, but look at it this way: When it’s 45 degrees F, you definitely need a jacket. But when it’s 68 degrees F, you’ll want to carry a light jacket in case it gets colder. Recall that the prefix ep– refers to “upon” or “around,” whereas the prefix hypo– refers to “below” or “under. The Latin translation of this word is “small cavity” or “sac,” so it makes sense that this would be an origination place. This answer just means that your hair won’t turn orange, not necessarily that it will fall out of your scalp. Don’t forget, though, that this layer also is called the stratum basale, or base stratum. B This gland contains true sweat, fatty acids, and proteins, and acquires an unpleasant odor when bacteria breaks down the organic molecules it secretes. D The gland that secretes an oily mixture of cholesterol, fats, and other substances into hair follicles to keep hair and skin soft, pliable, and waterproof is the b. Each of the chapters in this part delves into a different major body system, starting with the respiratory system and what a few deep breaths can do for the human machine. Next up is the digestive system, fueling the system with food; you follow a mouthful of food from its entry in the mouth to expulsion of waste after every possi- ble nutrient has been wrung from it. We check in on the cir- culatory system and its blood-filled internal transit routes that carry both nutrients and oxygen to every nook and cranny of the body. Then it’s on to the lymphatic system’s distribution of crucial immune system functions. Of course, all this supply and transport is bound to lead to a waste issue; we close out this part with a look at how the urinary system collects the body’s trash and dispenses with it. Chapter 8 Oxygenating the Machine: The Respiratory System In This Chapter Tracking respiration: In with oxygen, out with carbon dioxide Identifying the organs and muscles of the respiratory tract Taking note of common pulmonary diseases eople need lots of things to survive, but the most urgent need from moment to moment Pis oxygen. But if we have reserves of the other things we need — carbohydrates, fats, and proteins — why don’t we have some kind of storehouse of oxygen, too? It’s readily available in the air around us, so we’ve never needed to evolve a means for storing it. Nonetheless, our stored food supplies would be useless without oxygen; our bodies can’t metabolize the energy they need from these substances without a constant stream of oxygen to keep things percolating along. Conveniently, breathing in fulfills our need for oxygen and breathing out fulfills our need to expel carbon dioxide. In this chapter, you get a quick review of Mother Nature’s dual-purpose system and plenty of opportunities to test your knowledge about the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. Anoxia: Oxygen deficiency in which the cells either don’t have or can’t utilize sufficient oxygen to perform normal functions. Asphyxia: Lack of oxygen with an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues; accompanied by a feeling of suffocation leading to coma. Expiration or exhalation: The diaphragm returns to its domed shape as the muscle fibers relax, via elastic recoil of the lungs and tissues lining the thoracic cavity, the external intercostal muscles relax, and the internal intercostal muscles contract. This movement pulls the ribs back into place, decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity and increasing pressure, forcing air out of the lungs. Inspiration or inhalation: When the muscles of the diaphragm contract, its dome shape flattens; simultaneously, the contraction of the external intercostal muscles pulls the ribs upward and increases the volume of the thoracic cavity, decreasing the intra-alveolar pressure. The pressure difference between the atmosphere and the lungs diffuses air into the respiratory tract. Mediastinum: The region between the lungs extending from the sternum ven- trally (at the front) to the thoracic vertebrae dorsally (at the back), and superi- orly (top) from the entrance of the thoracic cavity to the diaphragm inferiorly (at the bottom). Minimal air: The volume of air in the lungs when they’re completely collapsed (150 cubic centimeters in an adult). Residual air: The volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration (1,200 cubic centimeters in an adult). Respiratory centers: Nerve centers for regulating breathing located in the medulla oblongata, or brain stem. Tidal air: The volume of air inspired and expired in the resting state (500 cubic centimeters in an adult). Vital capacity: The volume of air moved by the most forceful expiration after a maximum inspiration. It represents the total moveable air in the lungs (4,600 cubic centimeters in an adult). Here’s what happens as you breathe in and out (see Figure 8-1): Red blood cells use a pigment called hemoglobin to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body through the circulatory system (for more on that system, turn to Chapter 10). Hemoglobin bonds loosely with oxygen, or O2, to carry it throughout the body; the bonded hemoglobin is called oxyhemoglobin. The freshly bonded hemoglobin becomes carbohemoglobin (carbhemoglobin or carbaminohemoglobin). See whether you’re carrying away enough information about respiration by tackling the following practice questions: Q. The question asks only breathing is called about air moved during normal, quiet breathing, not the kind of a. Which of the following gases are dissolved and held in chemical combination in the blood? Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences: Upon inhalation, molecules of 3. Gaseous exchange in lungs Inhaling the Basics about the Respiratory Tract We fill and empty our lungs by contracting and relaxing the respiratory muscles, which include the dome-shaped diaphragm and the intercostal muscles that surround the rib cage. As these muscles contract, air moves through a series of interconnected cham- bers in the following order (see Figure 8-2): Nose → Pharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveolar ducts → Alveoli.