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These German nature curists were strongly inﬂu- The ‘mechano-therapy’ to which Cordingley refers enced by the work of Father Kneipp myambutol 400mg generic antibiotic use in agriculture, the German was an early 20th century manual therapy method purchase myambutol 600mg line antimicrobial quartz countertops. The graduates of Dr Spitler’s Eaton Many of these nature curists were organized into College of Physiatrics buy myambutol in india antibiotic resistance yeast, in Columbus best order myambutol bacteria worksheets, Ohio, were given mutual aid societies, self-help societies, practitioner a degree as a mechanotherapist if they were to prac- groups, etc. Some doctors operated both outpatient tice in Ohio, or as a naturopathic doctor if they planned and inpatient clinics, such as August Reinhold’s Insti- to leave the state (Broadwell 2001). The College essen- tute of Water Cure on Lexington Avenue in New York tially closed in the 1960s, though it may exist in some City, Dr Carl Strueh’s Water Cure Sanitarium in form today, and the license may still be obtainable in Chicago, Illinois, Dr Walter Selfertt and Dr Minna Ohio. A commission was established to orthopedic gymnastics (exercise therapy) and neuro- survey the various nature cure and ‘drugless healing’ therapy. Ultimately the commission decided that pathic literature considered osteopathy and chiro- all methods of drugless healing should be incorporated practic to be single branches of the larger naturopathic into a singular professional ﬁeld and the title for this profession (Lust 1918). At the time the term ‘drug- Supreme Court adjudicated a decision that deter- less’ was used in a fashion similar to the contemporary mined that chiropractic was a branch of naturopathy terminology ‘natural’. We Benedict Lust and the word ‘naturopathy’ also ﬁnd that manual therapy and physical medicine were applied in naturopathic practice for a variety of In 1900 Benedict Lust had purchased the rights to the acute and chronic conditions, as well as in the treat- name ‘naturopathy’ from Dr John Scheel, a German Chapter 3 • History of Naturopathic Physical Medicine 59 Box 3. Spiritual Occult Healing, Divine Healing Bernarr Macfadden’s inﬂuence homeopath and Kneipp and Kuhne practitioner in A ‘sister ﬁeld’ of naturopathy in this time period was New York City. Macfadden was most inﬂuential in pio- world in January of 1902 in the ﬁrst edition of the neering today’s exercise industry and much of today’s Naturopath and Herald of Health, the new name for ﬁtness movement descends directly from his inﬂu- Benedict Lust’s Kneipp Blatter which had been pub- ence. Thus, the naturo- exercise into hydrotherapy and manual therapy as pathic profession was ofﬁcially founded in 1901 and well. Lust and Macfadden were colleagues and announced to the world through the Naturopath and collaborators. Lust claimed to have opened the ﬁrst health food Lust wrote in his announcement of the new pro- store in North America, in New York City (Fig. The naturo- sive sports and ﬁtness culture are testament to the pathic professional literature of the time clearly articu- tremendous impact these two individuals have had in lates an understanding that natural therapeutics arose making basic naturopathy so common in the world with the dawn of humanity and that different societies today. The term ‘naturopathy’ was nothing less and nothing more than the ﬁrst modern term to differen- Case management tiate the ﬁeld of natural medicine – i. While The 1901 Kneipp Nature Cure Committee included homeopathy and Schussler cell salts as branches of 60 Naturopathic Physical Medicine ropathic physician centered around what was known as ‘physical-dietetic therapy’ (Lust 1909). We can see from a perusal of the prospectus at Lust and Regeniter’s Naturopathic College, later renamed the American School of Naturopathy and the ﬁrst school that provided a diploma as a naturopathic doctor, that the 10-subject program (see Figs 3. He writes that naturopathy is ‘the method of healing all diseases without medicines, drugs, poisons, and almost without any operations’ and that ‘Naturopathy’s materia medica consists of the principal elements derived from nature: light, air, water, heat, and clay, beside non-stimulating diet, exercise and rest, elec- tricity, magnetism and massage, calisthenics, physical culture, mental culture, etc. A European-trained physician practicing the nature cure, he arrived in what came to be called naturopathy. However, in the California and opened a practice in Los Angeles in Naturopath and Herald of Health, the primary profes- 1885 (Lust 1919a). He wrote and led the ﬁght for the sional journal of the period, we are afforded insight into bill that became the ﬁrst law to license naturopathic the actual case practices common at the time. The 1910 Naturo- cal application and case history the ﬁrst two decades path and Herald of Health advertisement for the college of the naturopathic professional literature reﬂects a includes a more expansive curriculum: small focus on non-poisonous botanical remedies, a consistent position that homeopathy is a compatible yet. The early 20th century practice of the natu- Bacteriology, Hygiene, Dietetics, etc. The Naturopaths are legalized in California and in some other states, the rest will follow. We not only endeavor to make our students competent to pass any Medical or Osteopathic Board of Examiners, but make them competent and practical Physicians. While the college curriculum includes minor and orthopedic surgery and botany, the thrust of the adver- tisement for the services of Dr Carl Schultz’s Naturo- pathic Institute and Sanitarium, immediately above the college advertisement in the journal, involves various modalities of physical medicine (Schultz 1910): Figure 3. Electric Light, Hot Air, Vapor, Sun, Electric, Herbal, Needle, 62 Naturopathic Physical Medicine Figure 3. Osteopathy, fenugreek seed has potent antineoplastic activity (Sur Chiropractic, Orthopedic Surgery, and all Hydropathic et al 2001). In the interest of our current subject – the history of physical medicine in naturopathic practice – it Naturopathy and nature cure behooves us to consider our Dr Staden (Fig. In a 1902 article entitled ions in the profession, rather than attempting to ‘Naturopathy vs Nature Cure’, Dr Lust articulates that evaluate the relative merits of this perspective. For while the two are ‘distant relatives, it is true – so are example, when he states that naturopathy is the larger the pussy and tiger’. The thrust of the article is that branch of drugless healing he is using the terminology naturopathy is not a limited patent system of proscrip- of the period. Drugless healing was used to differenti- tive natural therapeutics – for example prescribing sitz ate a general category of practice, not only in relation baths and wet sheet packs for all patients. Instead, to non-allopathic systems of healing at the time but naturopathy individualizes treatment in an eclectic also to differentiate the category from homeopathic and progressively minded fashion. The approach of practice and from the botanical practices of the time universal prescription was an early trend derived from such as eclecticism. For example, Dr Staden sion of the therapeutic worldview of the naturopath describes two cases of cancer treated with topical beyond universally applied systems for all disease. Chapter 3 • History of Naturopathic Physical Medicine 63 Lust argued that naturopathy is a larger inclusive ﬁeld The renaming of the title and Lust’s choice of this that expands beyond its nature cure foundations. So text as a textbook of practice indicates the early orien- what was naturopathic practice like during the ﬁrst tation of the profession’s leadership. Other modalities such as sunlight, the legislature they declared that the practice of natu- breathing therapy and electricity play a supplemental ropathic therapeutics consists of: role, as do botanical teas, steam baths and injections. There is scant reference to naturopaths prescribing • Dietetics homeopathic or allopathic medications. Prior • Hydrotherapy scholarship was also used to demonstrate historical • Physical Culture antecedents. For example, in 1902 Lust republished • Dynamic Breathing an article from the ﬁrst half of the 19th century, ‘The Sweating Cure for Hydrophobia’, in which • Massage Richard Metcalfe relates ﬁve successful case histories • Swedish Movements of rabies transmitted from animal to human that were • Structural Adjustments treated with Turkish steam cabinet baths (Metcalfe • Sun 1902). These include • Kneipp Cure a 10-month-old paralyzed boy originally diagnosed by allopathic doctors as a case of spinal meningitis, a • Just Cure case of acute peritonitis with a swollen abdomen, • Fasting cancer of the jaw, and pneumonia with ‘brain fever’ • And other simple natural agencies as Rest, (presumably meningitis). The Aside from the non-poisonous herbal remedies uti- cancer case also utilized electric light baths as part of lized in the Kneipp cure, the therapeutic means listed the therapy. The naturopathic treatment procedures in this period for various conditions such as gonorrhea, Eclectic naturopathy syphilis, diphtheria, infantile paralysis, meningitis While the early naturopathic profession included inter- and other infectious diseases detail what are primarily nal medication such as botanical medicine and homeo- physical methods of treatment allied with diet. In a pathic medicine in its larger conception of naturopathic 1909 article on spinal meningitis, Dr Lust refers to the practice, it would not be until the demise of the physi- naturopathic approach to treatment as ‘physical- cian level botanical (e. Originally entitled Physical Therapeutic viduals, professional groups and ideas would be Methods: A Handbook of Drugless Medical Practice when absorbed into the naturopathic profession. The profes- published in 1910, Lust republished the book in 1916 sional literature of the 1930s and 1940s documents the as A Treatise on Naturopathic Treatment: Based on the naturopathic professional absorption of those wither- Principles and Therapeutic Applications of the Physical ing professions with articles that focus more and more Modes and Methods of Treatment(Non-Medicinal Therapy). Naturopathy is a distinct school of healing, employing the beneﬁcent agency of Nature’s forces, or water, air, The ‘Physio-Therapists’ and naturopathy sunlight, earthpower, electricity, magnetism, exercise, In an interesting article ‘The Two Brands of Naturopa- rest, proper diet, various kinds of mechanical thy’ by E. The result therapist’ group that incorporated various physical of such ministrations is wholly beneﬁcent. This categorization is somewhat prophylactic power of Nature’s ﬁner forces, mechanical analogous to the chiropractic division between and occult, removes foreign matter from the system, ‘straights’ and ‘mixers’. The former group advocates restores nerve and blood vitality, invigorates organs limiting practice to adjustment of the spine and the and tissues, and regenerates the entire organism.
Public beliefs about and attitudes towards people with mental illness: A review of population studies generic 400 mg myambutol with amex xorimax antibiotic. Early intervention for substance abuse among youth and young adults with mental health conditions: An exploration of community mental health practices cheap myambutol 400 mg free shipping antimicrobial efficacy testing. Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco buy discount myambutol antibiotics how do they work, alcohol order myambutol 400mg line antibiotics for uti can you drink alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Naltrexone combined with either cognitive behavioral or motivational enhancement therapy for alcohol dependence. Naltrexone and cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of outpatient alcoholics: Results of a placebo- controlled trial. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Barriers to enrollment in drug abuse treatment and suggestions for reducing them: Opinions of drug injecting street outreach clients and other system stakeholders. Community studies on adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: Systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. Association of Marital and Family Therapy Regulatory Boards, & Professional Examination Service. Varenicline versus transdermal nicotine patch for smoking cessation: Results from a randomised open-label trial. Adolescent smoking and depression: Evidence for self-medication and peer smoking mediation. Brief opportunistic smoking cessation interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis to compare advice to quit and offer of assistance. Editorial: Standardizing terminology in addiction science: To achieve the impossible dream. Screening and interventions for alcohol and drug problems in medical settings: What works? Brief interventions for at-risk drinking: Patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness in managed care organizations. Brief intervention for heavy-drinking college students: 4-year follow-up and natural history. Brief cognitive behavioural interventions for regular amphetamine users: A step in the right direction. Site matters: Multisite randomized trial of motivational enhancement therapy in community drug abuse clinics. A 6-month controlled naltrexone study: Combined effect with cognitive behavioral therapy in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. The cost-effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for out-patients in treatment for depression. The cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance therapy for opiate addiction in the United States. Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavior therapy, and family intervention for patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Increased attributable risk related to a functional mu-opioid receptor gene polymorphism in association with alcohol dependence in central Sweden. Drug abuse treatment entry and engagement: Report of a meeting on treatment readiness. Medicaid reforms in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act. Outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse: A quality of evidence review. A randomized clinical trial of a new behavioral treatment for drug abuse in people with severe and persistent mental illness. An exploratory study of recreational drug use and nutrition-related behaviors and attitudes among adolescents. Accountable care organizations in Medicare and the private sector: A status update: Timely analysis of immediate health policy issues. Is concern about post-cessation weight gain a barrier to smoking cessation among pregnant women? Screening and brief intervention to reduce marijuana use among youth and young adults in a pediatric emergency department. To treat or not to treat: Evidence on the prospects of expanding treatment to drug-involved offenders. Does attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder impact the developmental course of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence? Familial transmission of substance dependence: Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: A report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence. Substance abuse training and perceived knowledge: Predictors of perceived preparedness to work in substance abuse. Gender differences in trauma history and symptoms as predictors of relapse to alcohol and drug use. Effect of smoking cessation counseling on recovery from alcoholism: Findings from a randomized community intervention trial. Seeking safety treatment for male veterans with a substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: The chronic care model, Part 2. A model for the treatment of trauma-related syndromes among chemically dependent inpatient women. Research on rural residence and access to drug abuse services: Where are we and where do we go? Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Guidelines for linking addiction treatment with primary healthcare developed for the Behavioral Health Recovery Management Project. Risk and reality: The implications of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Results: Develop standard training all possible sensory contact with the feet be stimulated purchase myambutol 800 mg otc infection urinaire femme. Conclusion: People With disability buy 400mg myambutol otc bacteria zar, the family and the sidual limb ends and speaker purchase myambutol 600mg with amex antibiotic poisoning. The whole treatment and rehabilitation process of the child were performed at home with continuous follow up order myambutol 400 mg on line antibiotics for dogs bacterial infections. Pestelli1 child under this method we observed signifcant outcome and im- 1 provement in access to rehabilitation as well as fulfllment of our Forli, Italy goal that is to make the child independent. For a long time medical rehabilitation into the hospitals was signed as the true rehabilitation for the best doctors. Participant got some facilities from Rehabilitation Centre, Musculoskeletal, Stoke-on-Trent, United garment factories. Providing with lift facilities, overtime facilities, Kingdom, 4North Staffordshire Rehabilitation Centre, Musculoskel- enough lighting, sitting arrangement, sick leave permission, shown etal and Rheumatology, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom sympathy, payment timely and easier job is given. Maximum worker opinion for modify culoskeletal disease, avoiding inappropriate referrals to expensive their workplace. Family Physicians and Physiotherapists use a national electronic referral system for patients >18 years with no red fags or features of infammatory arthritis. The novel nature of strengthen the process of developing strategic guidance for service our service comes from the multidisciplinary nature of its work- delivery and liaison with key stakeholders in Africa, by exchang- force, its engagement with patients, stake holders and its willing- ing knowledge, experience and skills and coordinating individual ness to utilise new strategies to ensure good service model provi- efforts by each country. The average number of rehabilitation physicians 1Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Acute Care and Rehabilitation, Nottwil, and therapists of each hospital was 4. Secondary rehabilitation agencies undertake the largest ment, Nottwil, Switzerland rehabilitation medicine workload of citywide, per hospital of third rehabilitation agencies undertake the largest rehabilitation medi- Introduction/Background: The admission process of patients to a cine workload. These two levels of rehabilitation agencies under- hospital is the starting point for inpatient services. In order to opti- take the workload of outpatient rehabilitation therapy and inpatient mize the quality of the health service process, one need a better un- rehabilitation therapy was 91. Conclusion: Foshan was to identify challenges and potential improvements in the admis- has build three level rehabilitation medicine care system, but the sion process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized clinic from rehabilitation hospitals and primary medical institutions lack the the perspective of an interdisciplinary team of health profession- capacity of rehabilitation services, the indentation of rehabilitation als. Material and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with eight physicians and therapists is big. Conclusion: This study identifed fve themes of challenges Dhaka, Bangladesh and potential improvements in the admission process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized clinic. When planning adaptions of Introduction/Background: Assistive technology is any device that is process steps in one of the areas, awareness of effects in other felds used to enhance a person’s functioning and participation (Scherer, is necessary. Occupational therapists have expertise in assessing clients important step to optimize the admission process. Managers of other hospitals can sup- been providing these services since 2008 under the Occupational plement the results of this study with their own process analyses, to Therapy Department at The Centre for the Rehabilitation of the improve their own patient admission processes. Objectives/Purposes: The assistive devices can help a person to engage in his/her regular activities where it may not be possible otherwise due to impairment or disability. De (remediation) and continuing the modifcation of the task or the 1 2 1 3 Baets , A. Patient cen- derstraeten 1Ghent University, Rehabilitation Medicine, Ghent, Belgium, tered functional assessment is completed for each patient. Conclusion: Patient Satisfaction Survey on Assistive Devices ogy, Ghent, Belgium, 3University Hospital Ghent, Department of used very effectively for the activity of daily living. The percent body fat is reduced but ticipation frequency, extent of involvement and desire for change the differences were not signifcant (p>0. Conclusion: This in- in sets of activities typical for the home, school or community novative intervention was effective in improving physical activity. It also includes an assessment of the effect It is likely that even greater effects could be achieved by improve- of environment on children’s participation. The aim of this study ments in implementation strategies, leading to higher fdelity. Information about child and family 1The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Faculty of Health and So- demographics is assessed by a short question-naire that includes cial Sciences, Hong Kong, Hong Kong- China, 2The Hong Kong information regarding participants’ demographic, child and family Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Social Sciences, characteristics (gender, maternal and paternal level of education, Hong Kong, Hong Kong- China level of income & current employment, age of the child if/when re-ceiving diagnosis, access to intervention etc. However, the needs of Results: Participation data reported by parents are currently being the family caregivers are often being neglected. Prepara- aimed to identify the needs of a family caregiver in taking care of a tory descriptive analyses are conducted. Mate- of children with disabilities and delays in terms of 1) home, school rial and Methods: We adopted action research as our methodol- and community patterns, 2) perceived environmental supports and ogy which aimed to improve our practice through the experiment. The Chinese version of 1) Depression Anxiety participation oriented interventions. A wide range of have an increased risk for unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and needs of those family caregivers was identifed which facilitates the weight disturbances. The nutritional education is a right food choices, 942 health habits, usage of nutrition labeling and so on. Results: A total ence- Unit of Epidemiology, Chemnitz, Germany number of 37 community residences expressed an initial interest Introduction/Background: Migrants in Germany utilize rehabilita- in participation but four loss, leaving 33 residences for baseline tive services less often than the majority population, independently measurements. A total of 33 participants, 22 men and 11 women of demographic and socioeconomic factors. The program participants were signifcant reduc- explored potential barriers that migrants face in rehabilitative care, tions in the Triglyceride (p=0. Lit- J Rehabil Med Suppl 55 Poster Abstracts 275 tle is known about non-participants. Respondents were recruited ference in any of the measured parameters between the two groups. Results: Four categories of reasons could be identifed that respondents described as barriers 944 for using rehabilitative care. Third, fears and reservations concerning particular treatments/excises during rehabilitation were 1Huai’an Maternity and Children Care, Children Rehabilitation, reported, which respondents considered discomforting or cultur- Huai’an, China ally inadequate. Conclusion: Respondents expressed several reservations con- posture, causing activity limitation, attributed to non-progressive cerning rehabilitative services comprising language-, culture- and disturbances occurring in the developing fetal or infant brain. Unknown data could be available from mater- which---unlike migrant- or culture-specifc services---are able to nal questionnaire which including maternal health care and nutri- take into account the heterogeneous needs of an increasingly di- tion during pregnancy, environmental factors, delivery situation verse population. This study describes an N:M matched case-control study conducted in Huai’an, Jiangsu province, China, to investigate rela- tive epidemiologic risk factors for children cerebral palsy. An N:M matched case-control study was conducted with 114 cerebral palsy cases and 1286 non-cerebral palsy controls. Conclusion: The main risk factors Introduction/Background: Obesity and Overweight among young of cerebral palsy focus on gestation and perinatal period. The inci- women represent serious health issues with an increasing global dence rate would be lower, if we take precautions and reduce the prevalence. Both groups received instructions to fol- damage in perinatal period were early intervened mainly by our low a balanced diet throughout the course of the study. The tal barriers perceived by people living with spinal cord injury in course of the intervention was 3 months.
- Noisy breathing or high-pitched sounds while inhaling
- Enlarged or tender prostate
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- Pain medicines
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- Your heart is weakened, too large, and does not pump blood very well. This may be from earlier heart attacks, heart failure, or cardiomyopathy (diseased heart muscle).
- Alcoholic neuropathy
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The arguments put forward by Happold show that even in the mid-sixties generic myambutol 800mg amex bacterial growth, it was difficult to separate doctors from the pharmaceutically-orientated infrastructure order myambutol uk bacteria 3 domains, which had grown up generic myambutol 800mg line bacteria meaning, densely cheap myambutol 600 mg fast delivery finished antibiotics for uti still have symptoms, around them. The Contemporary Scene It was evident, in the early years of the nineteen eighties, that there was a growth of interest in alternative and complementary medicine. It was an interest about which pharmaceutical companies were becoming increasingly concerned. In 1981, the Threshold Foundation, a body primarily interested in complementary healing, published the results of a survey into the status of complementary medicine in the United 10 Kingdom. The survey, thoroughly researched, was a major contribution to the understanding of the status and social position of a wide range of complementary treatments in Britain. Some results of the Threshold Foundation study gave the pharmaceutical companies serious reason to be concerned. Findings showed that increasing numbers of patients were turning to non-orthodox practitioners and that in the year 1980 to 1981, the numbers of such practitioners were increasing annually by around 11%. The number of lay homoeopaths registered with a professional association, for instance, had risen from 25 in 1978 to 120 in 1981. The number of practising acupuncturists had doubled during the same period, rising from 250 in 1978 to 500 in 1981. The growing number of complementary practitioners would not be prescribing or advising the use of drugs. If the treatment he (sic) proposes using has not been validated by a clinical trial then he (sic) is in just the same position as a clinical pharmacologist with a new drug. Alternative Therapy argues the case for the allopathic doctor against the alternatives. The first thirty six pages discuss the history of medicine from the birth of man, very useful for first-form secondary school pupils, but not so useful for those interested in alternative therapies. The description of the alternative therapies themselves is twenty five pages long. A short historical description of each practice — homoeopathy gets three pages, herbalism gets one page, acupuncture two pages — is followed by eighteen pages of discussion and analysis. These eighteen pages represent the tablets of stone upon which later and more acerbic critics of alternative medicine, campaigning in the late eighties, came to base their case. The discussion begins with a short discourse in praise of science and from that point onwards a fog of cynicism emanates from the pages. Inasmuch as scientific method lays such firm emphasis on observation, measurement and reproducibility, historically it has become inevitably and increasingly separate from doctrines embracing superstition, magic and the supernatural. Herein lies the first and most important difficulty that orthodox medical science has with alternative approaches. So many of them do not base their rationale on any theory which is consistent with natural laws as we now understand them. It is simply not possible for example, for orthodox scientists to accept that a medicine so dilute that it may contain not so muck as 1 4 one molecule of the remedy in a given dose can have any pharmacological action. If scientific method emphasises observation, measurement and reproducibility, why can we not use such method to appraise homoeopathy? The report as a whole argued that modern medicine began with the enlightenment and any medical treatment which cannot be explained is invalid. Alternative therapies may be used by these groups to induce belief, thus strengthening the religious dimension (which can qualify for charitable status with resulting tax benefits). We believe that, subject to the necessity to maintain the principle of freedom of religion in this country, they [the cults] should be carefully and continuously monitored in order to ensure that they do not become a threat to the health and wellbeing of those who enter into association 15 with them. Another idea which enters the public domain with this report, is that many alternative therapies are actually bad for you. Never is the information about health damage caused by alternative medicine compared to the dangers implicit in pharmacological treatment, or surgical intervention. Rarely are references given for claims and never are these claims the result of scientific studies. The 365 traditional points in acupuncture, run near, some perilously so, to vital structures, and complications ranging from the minor to the serious and the fatal have been reported. The public should not be exposed to acupuncturists who have not been trained to understand the relationship between the acupuncture points and anatomical structures, and also the physiology of organ structure. The potential dangers of local and systemic infection following an invasive technique such as acupuncture are real and well documented. While strict asepsis and sterile needles are self-evident requirements, we were led to believe it was an aim rather neglected in practice. Chapter Twenty Seven The Campaign Against Health Fraud, Part Two: Early Targets Ordinary monopolies comer the market; radical monopolies disable people from doing or 1 making things on their own. Caroline Richmond called the first meeting of what was to be called the Campaign Against Health Fraud in 1988. She had been laying the foundation for the group, gathering information and organising critical attacks upon clinical ecologists and allergy doctors, for at least two years previously. The campaigns against allergy medicine in particular, and clinical ecology generally, had perhaps been strongest during the previous decade in the north of England. The pragmatism of industrial Protestantism is seemingly unwilling to accept ideas about the delicate interleaving of the mind and body, and the hard commercial instinct remains unconvinced by alien notions of industry being bad for the health. In the mid-eighties, after going to work with Wellcome, Caroline Richmond consolidated her friendships with a variety of natural allies, most especially orthodox doctors working in the field of immunology. Two doctors in particular, Dr Tim David and Dr David Pearson, joined Richmond in her campaign against the alternative treatment of allergy. His first stop was Manchester University where he had previously received his PhD. Dr Tim David also became prominent in the early eighties working as a paediatrician, with an interest in allergy, at Booth Hall Hospital in Manchester. Both David and Pearson felt particularly offended by the work and life style of Dr Keith Mumby. Mumby, a writer as well as a doctor, had come late to environmental medicine, and when he did get involved, it was with great enthusiasm. By the mid-eighties Dr Mumby was at the centre of a small northern contingent of environmental practitioners. Another doctor who had been attracted to environmental medicine and especially to food allergy treatment was Dr David Freed, at that time based in Prestwich near Manchester. Despite being a classically trained allergist and immunologist, Freed turned away from orthodox medicine and towards clinical ecology in the late seventies. He is a large, bearded man, whose avuncular nature disguises a clear, disciplined mind. It was during his postgraduate training at Manchester University that Dr Freed first met Dr Pearson.
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