Westminster College, New Wilmington Pennsylvania. F. Thorald, MD: "Purchase online Lisinopril cheap no RX - Proven Lisinopril".
Pavlov realized that the dogs were salivating because Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor generic lisinopril 17.5mg line heart attack recovery. He conducted a series of experiments in which 17.5mg lisinopril with mastercard heart attack 8 months pregnant, over a number of trials purchase lisinopril 17.5mg online blood pressure average, dogs were exposed to a sound immediately before receiving food cheap 17.5mg lisinopril overnight delivery blood pressure chart age 70. He systematically controlled the onset of the sound and the timing of the delivery of the food, and recorded the amount of the dogs‘ salivation. Initially the dogs salivated only when they saw or smelled the food, but after several pairings of the sound and the food, the dogs began to salivate as soon as they heard the sound. Pavlov had identified a fundamental associative learning process called classical conditioning. After the association is learned, the previously neutral stimulus is sufficient to produce the behavior. Top right: Before conditioning, the neutral stimulus (the whistle) does not produce the salivation response. Conditioning is evolutionarily beneficial because it allows organisms to develop expectations that help them prepare for both good and bad events. Imagine, for instance, that an animal first smells a new food, eats it, and then gets sick. The Persistence and Extinction of Conditioning After he had demonstrated that learning could occur through association, Pavlov moved on to study the variables that influenced the strength and the persistence of conditioning. Extinctionrefers to the reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov found that, after a pause, sounding the tone again elicited salivation, although to a lesser extent than before extinction took place. If conditioning is again attempted, the animal will learn the new associations much faster than it did the first time. Pavlov also experimented with presenting new stimuli that were similar, but not identical to, the original conditioned stimulus. For instance, if the dog had been conditioned to being scratched before the food arrived, the stimulus would be changed to being rubbed rather than scratched. He found that the dogs also salivated upon experiencing the similar stimulus, a process known as generalization. Generalization refers to the tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus. If we eat some red berries and they make us sick, it would be a good idea to think twice before we eat some purple berries. Although the berries are not exactly the same, they nevertheless are similar and may have the same negative properties. In his experiment, high school students first had a brief interaction with a female experimenter who had short hair and glasses. The study was set up so that the students had to ask the experimenter a question, and (according to random assignment) the experimenter responded either in a negative way or a neutral way toward the students. Then the students were told to go into a second room in which two experimenters were present, and to approach either one of them. However, the researchers arranged it so that one of the two experimenters looked a lot like the original experimenter, while the other one did not (she had longer hair and no glasses). The students were significantly more likely to avoid the experimenter who looked like the earlier experimenter when that experimenter had been negative Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The participants showed stimulus generalization such that the new, similar-looking experimenter created the same negative response in the participants as had the experimenter in the prior session. The flip side of generalization is discrimination—the tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical. Pavlov‘s dogs quickly learned, for example, to salivate when they heard the specific tone that had preceded food, but not upon hearing similar tones that had never been associated with food. Discrimination is also useful—if we do try the purple berries, and if they do not make us sick, we will be able to make the distinction in the future. And we can learn that although the two people in our class, Courtney and Sarah, may look a lot alike, they are nevertheless different people with different personalities. In some cases, an existing conditioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus—a process known as second-order conditioning. Eventually he found that the dogs would salivate at the sight of the black square alone, even though it had never been directly associated with the food. Secondary conditioners in everyday life include our attractions to things that stand for or remind us of something else, such as when we feel good on a Friday because it has become associated with the paycheck that we receive on that day, which itself is a conditioned stimulus for the pleasures that the paycheck buys us. The Role of Nature in Classical Conditioning As we have seen in Chapter 1 "Introducing Psychology", scientists associated with the behavioralist school argued that all learning is driven by experience, and that nature plays no role. Classical conditioning, which is based on learning through experience, represents an example of the importance of the environment. Nature also plays a part, as our evolutionary history has made us better able to learn some associations than others. For example, driving a car is a neutral event that would not normally elicit a fear response in most people. But if a person were to experience a panic attack in which he suddenly experienced strong negative emotions while driving, he may learn to associate driving with the panic response. Psychologists have also discovered that people do not develop phobias to just anything. Although people may in some cases develop a driving phobia, they are more likely to develop phobias toward objects (such as snakes, spiders, heights, and open spaces) that have been dangerous to people in the past. In modern life, it is rare for humans to be bitten by spiders or snakes, to fall from trees or buildings, or to be attacked by a predator in an open area. But in our evolutionary past, the potential of being bitten by snakes or spiders, falling out of a tree, or being trapped in an open space were important evolutionary concerns, and therefore humans are still evolutionarily prepared to learn these associations over others (Öhman & Mineka, 2001; LoBue  & DeLoache, 2010). Another evolutionarily important type of conditioning is conditioning related to food. Garcia discovered that taste conditioning was extremely powerful— the rat learned to avoid the taste associated with illness, even if the illness occurred several hours later. But conditioning the behavioral response of nausea to a sight or a sound was much more difficult. These results contradicted the idea that conditioning occurs entirely as a result of environmental events, such that it would occur equally for any kind of unconditioned stimulus that followed any kind of conditioned stimulus. Rather, Garcia‘s research showed that genetics matters—organisms are evolutionarily prepared to learn some associations more easily than Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. You can see that the ability to associate smells with illness is an important survival mechanism, allowing the organism to quickly learn to avoid foods that are poisonous. A teacher places gold stars on the chalkboard when the students are quiet and attentive. Eventually, the students start becoming quiet and attentive whenever the teacher approaches the chalkboard.
When administering aminoglycosides intravenously effective lisinopril 17.5 mg blood pressure chart in europe, dilute the medication in solution as per the package insert and infuse it over a 30- to 60-minute period purchase lisinopril master card blood pressure medication dosages. Use a smaller than normal dose for elderly patients who are at greater risk for kidney toxicity and ototoxicity 17.5 mg lisinopril otc heart attack movie review. After administering aminoglycides purchase lisinopril 17.5 mg fast delivery blood pressure goes up and down, keep the patient well hydrated and mon- itor the patient’s intake and output to determine if there is nephrotoxicity. The patient should be provided with the same instructions as those given to a patient who is receiving penicillin (see Penicillin and Patient Education). Advise the patient to report any hearing problem including ringing or buzzing in the ears as well as dizziness, numbness, tingling, twitching, or changes in urinary pat- terns especially blood in the urine. Aminoglycosides and Drug-Drug Interactions Aminoglycosides can have undesirable interactions with other medications. When taken with other aminoglycosides or capremycin (Capastat) the patient has an increased potential for hearing, kidney, and neuromuscular problems. Hearing loss can lead to total deafness long after the patient stops treatment with aminoglycosides. Methoxyflurane (Penthrane) and polymyxins, given parenterally also increase the possibility for neuromus- cular blockage as well as kidney toxicity. In addition, patients who are treated with aminoglycides can have interactions with the following medications: • Amphotericin B parenteral (Fungizone) • Aspirin • Bacitracin parenteral • Bumetanide parenteral aspirin • Bacitracin • Parenteral bumetanide (Bumex) • Cephalothin (Keflin) • Cisplatin (Platinol) • Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) • Ethacrynate parenteral (Edecrin) • Furosemide parenteral (Lasix) • Paromomycin (Humatin) • Polymyxins • Streptozocin (Zanosar) • Vancomycin (Cancocin) Aminoglycosides, Nursing Diagnosis, and Collaborative Problems Patients who receive aminoglycosides may also experience nephrotoxicty (kid- ney), neurotoxicity (muscle twitching, numbness or seizures), and hypersensitivity. Here are the common nursing diagnosis related to a patient who is receiving aminoglycosides. It is used to treat a variety of infections including acne vulgaris, actinomycosis, anthrax, bronchitis, and other systemic bacterial infections including bacterial urinary tract infections. Demeclocycline, a member of the tetracycline family, is also used to treat conditions that are associated with inappropriate diuretic hormone since deme- clocycline inhibits water-induced reabsorption in the kidneys. Assess the patient the same way as described previously in this chapter for a patient taking penicillin. Furthermore, tetracyclines should not be given to children under 8 years of age because tetracyclines can permanently mottle and discolor the teeth and decrease linear skeletal growth in both children and the fetus. Patients who have a hypersenitivity to caine medication such as lidocaine and procaine may be intolerant to tetracyclines because caine medication is mixed in the tetracycline intramuscular injection. Other members of the tetracycline family should not be prescribed for those patients. It should not be administered an hour before meals or two hours after meals except for doxycycline and minocycline. The patient should not be given antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, laxatives, iron products, food, or milk or other dairy products for 1 hour before or 2 hours after tetracycline is administered. The patient should be provided with the same instructions as those given to a patient who is receiving penicillin (see Penicillin and Patient Education). However, also advise the patient to avoid direct sunlight and ultraviolet light because tetracyclines might cause the patient to become sensitive to sunlight. Advise the patient to discard unused tetracycline because tetracyline becomes toxic as it decomposes. Tetracycline should be taken on an empty stomach as food affects absorption of the drug. Tetracyclines and Drug-Drug Interactions Tetracyclines can interact with other medications. Avoid giving tetracyclines two hours before or after the patient receives colestipol (Colestid) or cholestyramine (Questran) because these medications decrease the absorption of tetracycline. Give tetracycline 1–3 hours before or after giving the patient antacids, calcium supplements, choline and magnesium salicylates, iron supplements, magnesium salicylate, or magnesium laxatives, foods containing milk and milk products. Don’t give tetracycline if the patient is taking estrogen-containing oral con- traceptives since this reduces the contraceptive effectiveness and may result in breakthrough bleeding. Female patients should be advised to use alternative methods of birth control while on antibiotics. Here are the common nursing diagnoses that are the related to a patient who is receiving tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol is given for treatment of meningitis (H influenzae, S pneumoniae, and N meningitides), parathyroid fever, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhoid fever, typhus infections, brain abscesses, and bacterial septicemia. Chloramphenicol should not be used for a patient who is pregnant or is breastfeeding. Neonates may develop gray syndrome, which is blue-gray skin, hypothermia, irregular breathing, coma, and cardiovascular collapse. Chloramphenicol is not recommended for use with a patient who is undergo- ing radiation therapy or who has bone marrow depression. Monitor the chloramphenicol serum level to assure that chloramphenicol stays within therapeutic limits. Serious adverse effects include blood dyscrasias, optic neuritis, and possi- bly irreversible bone marrow depression that may lead to aplastic anemia. Chloramphenicol is known to increase bone marrow depression when given with anticonvulsants. Patients who are taking antidiabetic medication may see an increase in the level of that medication when taken with chloramphenicol resulting in hypo- glycemia. Therefore, diabetics who take chloramphenicol must closely monitor their blood glucose level. Chloramphenicol also causes a decrease in the therapeutic effect of clin- damycin, erythromycin, or lincomycin. Chloramphenicol increases the drug serum levels of phenobarbital (Luminal), phenytoin (Dilantin), or warfarin (Coumadin) which can lead to toxicity. Chloramphenicol, Nursing Diagnosis, and Collaborative Problems Patients who take chloramphenicol may also experience rash, fever, and dysp- nea. Here are the common nursing diagnoses that are related to a patient who is taking chloramphenicol. Make sure that the patient doesn’t have an allergic reaction to any fluoro- quinolone. If they are allergic to one drug within the fluoroquinolone family, then they are highly likely to be allergic to other fluoroquinolone medications. Patients who take fluoroquinolones can, in rare cases, experience dizziness, drowsiness, restlessness, stomach distress, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, psy- chosis, confusion, hallucinations, tremors, hypersensitivity, and interstitial nephritis (kidney). The dose of fluoroquinolones should be lowered in patients with hepatic (liver) or renal (kidney) problems. Administer fluoroquinolones with a full glass of water to minimize the pos- sibility of crystalluria. Ofloxacin, a member of the fluoroquinolones family, must be infused into a large vein over 60 minutes to minimize discomfort and venous irritation. The patient should be provided with the same instructions as those given to a patient who is receiving penicillin (see Penicillin and Patient Education). Tell the patient to report blurry or double vision, sensitivity to light, dizziness, light- headedness, or depression. If fluoroquinolones are self administered, tell the patient to avoid taking the drug within two hours of taking an antacid.
Usually the situation is an issue with which one individual client has been struggling buy lisinopril high blood pressure medication and sperm quality. In this role purchase lisinopril 17.5 mg without prescription blood pressure medication low heart rate, the client is able to express true feelings toward in- dividuals (represented by group members) with whom he or she has unresolved conﬂicts buy lisinopril australia hypertension journal article. In some instances lisinopril 17.5mg visa hypertension jokes, the group leader may ask for a client to volunteer to be the protagonist for that session. The client may choose a situation he or she wishes to enact and select the audi- ence members to portray the roles of others in the life situation. The psychodrama setting provides the client with a safer and less threatening atmosphere than the real situation in which to express true feelings. When the drama has been completed, group members from the audience discuss the situation they have observed, offer feed- back, express their feelings, and relate their own similar experi- ences. In this way, all group members beneﬁt from the session, either directly or indirectly. Leaders of psychodrama have graduate degrees in psychology, social work, nursing, or medicine with additional training in group therapy and specialty preparation to become a psychodramatist. Areas of assessment include communication, manner of self- concept reinforcement, family members’ expectations, handling differences, family interaction patterns, and the “climate” of the family (a blend of feelings and experiences that are the result of sharing and interacting). The systems approach to fam- ily therapy is composed of eight major concepts: (1) differentia- tion of self, (2) triangles, (3) nuclear family emotional process, (4) family projection process, (5) multigenerational transmission process, (6) sibling position proﬁles, (7) emotional cutoff, and (8) societal regression. The goal is to increase the level of dif- ferentiation of self, while remaining in touch with the family system. The Structural Model In this model, the family is viewed as a social system within which the individual lives and to which the individual must adapt. Major concepts include systems, subsystems, trans- actional patterns, and boundaries. The therapist does this by joining the family, evaluating the family system, and restruc- turing the family. Functional families are open systems where clear and precise messages, congruent with the situation, are sent and received. In dysfunctional families, viewed as partially closed systems, communication is vague, and messages are often inconsistent and incongruent with the situation. Destructive patterns of communication tend to inhibit healthful nurtur- ing and decrease individual feelings of self-worth. Concepts of this model include double-bind communication, pseudomutual- ity and pseudohostility, marital schism, and marital skew. The goal of therapy is to create change in destructive behavior and communication patterns among family members. This is ac- complished by using paradoxical intervention (prescribing the symptom) and reframing (changing the setting or viewpoint in relation to which a situation is experienced and placing it in another more positive frame of reference). The goal of therapeutic commu- nity is for the client to learn adaptive coping, interaction, and relationship skills that can be generalized to other aspects of his or her life. According to Skinner (1979), a therapeutic community is based on seven basic assumptions: 1. Since the goals of milieu therapy relate to helping the client learn to generalize that which is learned to other aspects of his or her life, the conditions that promote a therapeutic commu- nity in the hospital setting are similar to the types of conditions that exist in real-life situations. Physical facilities that are conducive to the achievement of the goals of therapy. The inclusion of community and family in the program of therapy in an effort to facilitate discharge from the hospital. The team includes some, or all, of the following disciplines and may include oth- ers that are not speciﬁed here: psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, psychiatric clinical nurse specialist, psychiatric nurse, mental health technician, psychiatric social worker, occupational thera- pist, recreational therapist, art therapist, music therapist, psy- chodramatist, dietitian, and chaplain. They are involved in the assessment, diagnosis, outcome identiﬁcation, planning, implementation, and evaluation of all treatment programs. During this period, psychiatric inpatient treat- ment provided sufﬁcient time to implement programs of ther- apy that were aimed at social rehabilitation. Currently, care in inpatient psychiatric facilities is shorter and more biologically based, limiting clients’ beneﬁt from the socialization that occurs in a milieu as treatment program. Although strategies for mi- lieu therapy are still used, they have been modiﬁed to conform to the short-term approach to care or to outpatient treatment programs. Crises are precipitated by speciﬁc, identiﬁable events and are determined by an individual’s personal perception of the situa- tion. Crises occur when an individual is exposed to a stressor and previous problem-solving techniques are ineffective. They include disposi- tional crises, crises of anticipated life transitions, crises resulting from traumatic stress, maturational or developmental crises, cri- ses reﬂecting psychopathology, and psychiatric emergencies. Crisis intervention is designed to provide rapid assistance for individuals who have an urgent need. Aguilera (1998) suggests that the “focus is on the supportive, with the restoration of the individual to his precrisis level of functioning or possibly to a higher level of functioning. Nursing process is the vehicle by which nurses assist individuals in crisis with a short-term problem-solving approach to change. A four-phase technique is used: assessment/analysis, planning of therapeutic intervention, intervention, and evalua- tion of crisis resolution and anticipatory planning. Through this structured method of assistance, nurses assist individuals in cri- sis to develop more adaptive coping strategies for dealing with stressful situations in the future. Individuals under stress respond with a physiological arousal that can be dangerous over long periods. Indeed, the stress re- sponse has been shown to be a major contributor, either directly or indirectly, to coronary heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidental injuries, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide—six of the leading causes of death in the United States. Relaxation therapy is an effective means of reducing the stress response in some individuals. The degree of anxiety that an individual experiences in response to stress is related to cer- tain predisposing factors, such as characteristics of temperament with which he or she was born, past experiences resulting in learned patterns of responding, and existing conditions, such as health status, coping strategies, and adequate support systems. Deep relaxation can counteract the physiological and be- havioral manifestations of stress. Various methods of relaxation include the following: Deep-Breathing Exercises: Tension is released when the lungs are allowed to breathe in as much oxygen as pos- sible. Deep-breathing exercises involve inhaling slowly and deeply through the nose, holding the breath for a few seconds, then exhaling slowly through the mouth, pursing the lips as if trying to whistle. Progressive Relaxation: This method of deep-muscle re- laxation is based on the premise that the body responds to anxiety-provoking thoughts and events with muscle tension. Each muscle group is tensed for 5 to 7 seconds and then relaxed for 20 to 30 seconds, during which time the individual concentrates on the difference in sensa- tions between the two conditions. A modiﬁed version of this technique (called passive progressive relaxation) involves re- laxation of the muscles by concentrating on the feeling of relaxation within the muscle, rather than the actual tens- ing and relaxing of the muscle. It brings on a special state of consciousness as attention is concentrated solely on one thought or object. During meditation, as the individual becomes totally pre- occupied with the selected focus, the respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure decrease. The frame of reference is very personal, based on what each individual considers to be a relaxing environment.
After you read the list to your friend buy lisinopril 17.5mg fast delivery blood pressure medication how long to take effect, give her enough time to write down all the words that she can recall discount 17.5mg lisinopril with amex blood pressure range chart. Make sure that she cannot recall any more and then order online lisinopril hypertension at 60, for the words that were not listed 17.5 mg lisinopril with amex arteria 3d medieval worldbuilder classic, prompt your friend with some of the category names: “Do you remember any words that were furniture? Retrieval Demonstration Try this test of the ability to retrieve information with a classmate. Apple (Fruit) Dresser (Furniture) Sander (Tool) Pomegranate (Fruit) Sunflower (Flower) Tangerine (Fruit) Chair (Furniture) Peony (Flower) Banana (Fruit) Sofa (Furniture) Bench (Furniture) Strawberry (Fruit) Television stand (Furniture) Magnolia (Flower) Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Read your friend the names of the 10 states listed in the sidebar below, and ask him to name the capital city of each state. Now, for the capital cities that your friend can‘t name, give him just the first letter of the capital city. You‘ll probably find that having the first letters of the cities helps with retrieval. The tip-of-the-tongue experience is a very good example of the inability to retrieve information that is actually stored in memory. States and Capital Cities Try this demonstration of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon with a classmate. Georgia (Atlanta) Maryland (Annapolis) California (Sacramento) Louisiana (Baton Rouge) Florida (Tallahassee) Colorado (Denver) New Jersey (Trenton) Arizona (Phoenix) Nebraska (Lincoln) Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Context-dependent learning refers to an increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the  situation in which it is remembered. Godden and Baddeley (1975) conducted a study to test this idea using scuba divers. They asked the divers to learn a list of words either when they were on land or when they were underwater. Then they tested the divers on their memory, either in the same or the opposite situation. For instance, you might want to try to study for an exam in a situation that is similar to the one in which you are going to take the exam. Whereas context-dependent learning refers to a match in the external situation between learning and remembering, state-dependent learning refers to superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding. Research has found, for instance, that animals that learn a maze while under the influence of one drug tend to remember their learning better when they are tested under the influence of the same drug than  when they are tested without the drug (Jackson, Koek, & Colpaert, 1992). And research with humans finds that bilinguals remember better when tested in the same language in which they  learned the material (Marian & Kaushanskaya, 2007). People who learn information when they are in a bad (rather than a good) mood find it easier to recall these memories when they are tested while they are in a bad mood, and vice versa. It is easier to recall unpleasant memories than pleasant ones when we‘re sad, and easier to recall pleasant memories than unpleasant ones when we‘re happy (Bower, 1981; Eich,  2008). Variations in the ability to retrieve information are also seen in the serial position curve. People are able to retrieve more words that were presented to them at the beginning and the end of the list than they are words that were presented in the middle of the list. This pattern, known as the serial position curve, is caused by two retrieval phenomenon: The primacy effect refers to a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list. The recency effect refers to the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list. There are a number of explanations for primacy and recency effects, but one of them is in terms of the effects of rehearsal on short-term and long-term memory (Baddeley, Eysenck, &  Anderson, 2009). Because we can keep the last words that we learned in the presented list in short-term memory by rehearsing them before the memory test begins, they are relatively easily remembered. So the recency effect can be explained in terms of maintenance rehearsal in short- term memory. And the primacy effect may also be due to rehearsal—when we hear the first word in the list we start to rehearse it, making it more likely that it will be moved from short-term to long-term memory. Retroactive interferenceoccurs when learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that was learned earlier. For example, if you have learned to program in one computer language, and then you learn to program in another similar one, you may start to make mistakes programming the first language that you never would have Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. In this case the new memories work backward (retroactively) to influence retrieval from memory that is already in place. In contrast to retroactive interference, proactive interference works in a forward direction. Proactive interference occurs when earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later. For example, if we have learned French as a second language, this knowledge may make it more difficult, at least in some respects, to learn a third language (say Spanish), which involves similar but not identical vocabulary. Forming categories, and using categories to guide behavior, is a fundamental part of human nature. Associated concepts within a category are connected through spreading activation, which occurs when activating one element of a category activates other associated elements. For instance, because tools are associated in a category, reminding people of the word “screwdriver‖ will help them remember the word “wrench. If they have just remembered the word “wrench,‖ they are more likely to remember the word “screwdriver‖ next than they are to remember the word “dahlia,‖ because the words are organized in memory by category and because dahlia‖ is activated by spreading  activation from“wrench‖ (Srull & Wyer, 1989). Some categories have defining features that must be true of all members of the category. For instance, all members of the category “triangles‖ have three sides, and all members of the category “birds‖ lay eggs. But most categories are not so well-defined; the members of the category share some common features, but it is impossible to define which are or are not members of the category. Members of categories (even those with defining features) can be compared to the category prototype, which is the member of the category that is most average or typical of the category. Some category members are more prototypical of, or similar to, the category than others. For instance, some category members (robins and sparrows) are highly prototypical of the category “birds,‖ whereas other category members (penguins and ostriches) are less prototypical. We retrieve information that is prototypical of a category faster than we retrieve information that  is less prototypical (Rosch, 1975). Mental categories are sometimes referred to as schemas—patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information. We have schemas about objects (that a triangle has three sides and may take on different angles), about people (that Sam is friendly, likes to golf, and always wears sandals), about events (the particular steps involved in ordering a meal at a restaurant), and about social groups (we call these group schemas stereotypes). Read the following paragraph (Bransford & Johnson,  1972) and then try to write down everything you can remember.