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In particular purchase generic celecoxib from india what does arthritis in dogs look like, he focused on the saying ‘feed a cold and starve a fever’ celecoxib 100mg discount rheumatoid arthritis ulnar deviation, and argued that lay constructs of health could be conceptualized according to the dimensions ‘hot/cold’ and ‘wet/dry’ order celecoxib without prescription arthritis flare up in neck. In a similar vein order celecoxib online arthritis in neck and shoulder treatment, medical sociologists have also explored lay conceptions of health. For example, Herzlich (1973) interviewed 80 French subjects and categorized their models of health into three dimensions: ‘health in a vacuum’, implying the absence of illness; ‘the reserve of health’, relating to physical strength and resistance to illness; and ‘equilibrium’ indicating a full realization of the indi- vidual’s reserve of health. Likewise, Blaxter (1990) asked 9000 individuals to describe someone whom they thought was healthy and to consider, ‘What makes you call them healthy? However, for many health was seen in terms of a reserve, a healthy life ﬁlled with health behaviours, physical ﬁtness, having energy and vitality, social relationships with others, being able to function eﬀectively and an expression of psychosocial well- being. Blaxter also examined how a concept of health varied over the life course and investigated any sex diﬀerences. Furthermore, Calnan (1987) explored the health beliefs of women in England and argued that their models of health could be con- ceptualized in two sets of deﬁnitions: positive deﬁnitions including energetic, plenty of exercise, feeling ﬁt, eating the right things, being the correct weight, having a positive outlook and having a good life/marriage; and negative deﬁnitions including don’t get coughs and colds, only in bed once, rarely go to the doctor and have check-ups – nothing wrong. Lau (1995) argued that most people show a positive deﬁnition of health (not just the absence of illness), which also includes more than just physical and psychological factors. He suggested that healthiness is most people’s normal state and represents the backdrop to their beliefs about being ill. In his study of the beliefs of young healthy adults, Lau (1995) also asked ‘what does it mean to be sick? These dimensions of ‘what it means to be ill’ have been described within the context of illness cognitions (also called illness beliefs or illness representations). They proposed that these cognitions provide patients with a framework or a schema for coping with and understanding their illness, and telling them what to look out for if they are becoming ill. In addition, patients may hold representations of illness that reﬂect a variety of diﬀerent causal models (e. Evidence for these dimensions of illness cognitions The extent to which beliefs about illness are constituted by these diﬀerent dimensions has been studied using two main methodologies – qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative research Leventhal and his colleagues carried out interviews with individuals who were chronically ill, had been recently diagnosed as having cancer, and with healthy adults. The resulting descriptions of illness suggest underlying beliefs that are made up of the above dimensions. Leventhal and his colleagues argued that interviews are the best way to access illness cognitions as this methodology avoids the possibility of priming the subjects. For example, asking a subject ‘to what extent do you think about your illness in terms of its possible consequences’ will obviously encourage them to regard con- sequences as an important dimension. However, according to Leventhal, interviews encourage subjects to express their own beliefs, not those expected by the interviewer. Quantitative research Other studies have used more artiﬁcial and controlled methodologies, and these too have provided support for the dimensions of illness cognitions. They asked 20 subjects to sort 65 statements into piles that ‘made sense to them’. They reported that the subjects’ piles of categories reﬂected the dimensions of identity (diagnosis/symptoms), consequences (the possible eﬀects), time line (how long it will last), cause (what caused the illness) and cure/control (how and whether it can be treated). A series of experimental studies by Bishop and colleagues also provided support for these dimensions. For example, Bishop and Converse (1986) presented subjects with brief descriptions of patients who were experiencing six diﬀerent symptoms. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two sets of descriptions: high prototype in which all six symptoms had been previously rated as associated with the same disease, or low prototype in which only two of the six symptoms had been previously rated as associated with the same disease. The results showed that subjects in the high prototype condition labelled the disease more easily and accurately than subjects in the low prototype con- dition. The authors argued that this provides support for the role of the identity dimension (diagnosis and symptoms) of illness representations and also suggested that there is some consistency in people’s concept of the identity of illnesses. In addition, subjects were asked to describe in their own words ‘what else do you think may be associated with this person’s situation? They reported that 91 per cent of the given associations fell into the dimensions of illness representations as described by Leventhal and his colleagues. However, they also reported that the dimensions consequences (the possible eﬀects) and time line (how long it will last) were the least frequently mentioned. There is also some evidence for a similar structure of illness representations in other cultures. Weller (1984) examined models of illness in English-speaking Americans and Spanish-speaking Guatemalans. The results indicated that illness was predominantly conceptualized in terms of contagion and severity. Hagger and Orbell (2003) carried out a meta analysis of 45 empirical studies which used Leventhal’s model of illness cognitions. They concluded from their analysis that there was consistent support for the diﬀerent illness cognition dimensions and that the diﬀerent cognitions showed a logical pattern across diﬀerent illness types. Measuring illness cognitions Leventhal and colleagues originally used qualitative methods to assess people’s illness cognitions. These will be described in terms of questionnaires that have been developed and methodological issues surrounding measurement. This questionnaire asks subjects to rate a series of statements about their illness. This questionnaire has been used to examine beliefs about illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes and arthritis and provides further support for the dimensions of illness cognitions (Weinman and Petrie 1997). However, people have beliefs not only about their illness but also about their treatment, whether it is medication, surgery or behaviour change. French and colleagues asked whether the form of method used to elicit beliefs about illness inﬂu- enced the types of beliefs reported. Participants were asked either simply to rate a series of causes for heart attack (the questionnaire) or to read a vignette about a man and to estimate his chances of having a heart attack. The results showed that the two diﬀerent methods resulted in diﬀerent beliefs about the causes of heart attack and diﬀerent importance placed upon these causes. Speciﬁcally, when using the questionnaire smoking and stress came out as more important causes than family history, whereas when using the vignette smoking and family history came out as more important causes than stress. The results showed stressors, fate or luck were more common beliefs about causes when using interval rating scales (i. These illness cognitions have been incorporated into a model of illness behaviour to examine the relationship between an individual’s cognitive repre- sentation of their illness and their subsequent coping behaviour. This model is based on approaches to problem solving and suggests that illness/symptoms are dealt with by individuals in the same way as other problems (see Chapter 4 for details of other models of problem solving). It is assumed that given a problem or a change in the status quo the individual will be motivated to solve the problem and re-establish their state of normality. Traditional models describe problem solving in three stages: (1) interpretation (making sense of the problem); (2) coping (dealing with the problem in order to regain a state of equilibrium); and (3) appraisal (assessing how successful the coping stage has been). According to models of problem solving these three stages will continue until the coping strategies are deemed to be successful and a state of equilibrium has been attained. In terms of health and illness, if healthiness is an individual‘s normal state, then any onset of illness will be interpreted as a problem and the individual will be motivated to re-establish their state of health (i.
Key points 120 Key points 100 Pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly include: 80 • Absorption of iron cheap celecoxib express arthritis pain foot, calcium and thiamine is reduced cheap 100mg celecoxib otc does arthritis in the knee cause swelling. It is Atenolol common clinical experience that benzodiazepines given to the Cimetidine elderly at hypnotic doses used for the young can produce pro- Diazepam longed daytime confusion even after single doses order 100 mg celecoxib amex arthritis questions to ask your doctor. The inci- Digoxin dence of confusion associated with cimetidine is increased in Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the elderly order celecoxib no prescription arthritis treatment by ayurveda. Other drugs may expose physiological defects that Oral hypoglycaemic agents are a normal concomitant of ageing. Key points The prescription of hypnotics (see Chapter 18) should be Pharmacodynamic changes in the elderly include: minimized and restricted to short-term use. Although depression is common in old age and may indeed phenothiazines, beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, need drug treatment, this is not without risk. Tricyclic antide- pressants can produce worthwhile remissions of depression but should be started at very low dosage. They are generally well This is commonly due to a failure of memory or to not under- tolerated by the elderly, although hyponatraemia has been standing how the drug should be taken. It is therefore essential that the drug regimen is kept as simple as possible The anticholinergic group of anti-parkinsonian drugs (e. There is scope for improved methods trihexyphenidyl, orphenadrine) commonly cause side effects of packaging to reduce over- or under-dosage. Glaucoma regimens are confusing and increase the risk of adverse inter- may be precipitated or aggravated and confusion may occur actions (see Chapter 13). Cerebral function in old people is easily disturbed, resulting in disorientation and confusion. It is shorter time, their sleep is more likely to be broken and they are important to start with a low dose and monitor carefully. Before hypnotics are commenced, other possible factors likely to suffer severe consequences, such as falls/fractures should be considered and treated if possible. Hypokalaemia due to decreased potassium intake (potassium-rich foods are often expensive), faulty homeo- Diabetes is common in the elderly and many patients are static mechanisms resulting in increased renal loss and the con- treated with oral hypoglycaemic drugs (see Chapter 37). It is comitant use of diuretics is more common in the elderly, and is best for elderly patients to be managed with diet if at all possi- a contributory factor in some patients. In obese elderly diabetics who remain symptomatic on prescribed when there is no indication for it (e. In one drugs because of the risk of hypoglycaemia: chlorpropamide series of geriatric patients on digoxin, the drug was withdrawn (half-life 36 hours) can cause prolonged hypoglycaemia and is in 78% of cases without detrimental effects. Brisk diuresis in patients with mental impairment or reduced The decline in renal function must be borne in mind when an mobility can result in incontinence. For many patients, a thia- antibiotic that is renally excreted is prescribed, especially if it is zide diuretic, such as bendroflumethiazide, is adequate. Appendix 3 diuretics, such as furosemide, should be used in acute heart of the British National Formulary is an invaluable practical guide. Broad-spectrum drugs including uncommon with low doses of diuretics, but plasma potassium cephalosporins and other beta-lactams, and fluoroquinones are should be checked after starting treatment. If clinically important common precursors of Clostridium difficile infection which has a hypokalaemia develops, a thiazide plus potassium-retaining high mortality rate in the elderly. Amoxicillin is the most com- diuretic (amiloride or triamterene) can be considered, but there mon cause of drug rash in the elderly. Flucloxacillin induced is a risk of hyperkalaemia due to renal impairment, especially cholestatic jaundice and hepatitis is more common in the elderly. Thiazide-induced gout and Case history glucose intolerance are important side effects. An 80-year-old retired publican was referred with ‘congest- ive cardiac failure and acute retention of urine’. His other medication included ketoprofen for osteoarthritis and fre- These drugs plays an important part in the treatment of chronic quent magnesium trisilicate mixture for indigestion. He heart failure, as well as hypertension (see Chapters 28 and 31), had been getting up nearly ten times most nights for a year and are effective and usually well tolerated in the elderly. During the day, he frequently passed small However, hypotension, hyperkalaemia and renal failure are amounts of urine. The possibility of atheroma- were due to the fact that he drank two pints of beer each tous renal artery stenosis should be borne in mind and serum day since his retirement seven years previously. On physical examination he was clinically anaemic, but Potassium-retaining diuretics should be co-administered only not cyanosed. Rectal examination revealed an enlarged, symmetrical prostate and black tarry faeces. Initial laboratory results revealed that the patient had acute on chronic renal failure, dangerously high potassium 5. Drugs should seldom be used to treat symptoms without urinary catheterization, furosemide and haemodialysis. Drugs should not be withheld because of old age, but it doxazosin and ranitidine, and paracetamol as required. Do not use a drug if the symptoms it causes are worse Answer Co-amilozide – hyperkalaemia: amiloride, exacerbation of than those it is intended to relieve. It is seldom sensible to treat the side effects of one drug Chlorpromazine – urinary retention by prescribing another. Ketoprofen – gastric ulcer, antagonism of thiazide diuretic, salt retention, possibly interstitial nephritis In the elderly, it is often important to pay attention to mat- Magnesium trisilicate mixture – additional sodium load ters such as the formulation of the drug to be used – many old (6mmol Na /10mL). Supervision of drug taking may be necessary, as Iatrogenic disease due to multiple drug therapy is common in the elderly. The use of amiloride in renal impairment an elderly person with a serious physical or mental disability leads to hyperkalaemia. This patient’s confusion and rest- cannot be expected to comply with any but the simplest drug lessness were most probably related to his renal failure. Containers require especially clear labelling, and Chlorpromazine may mask some of the symptoms/signs and should be easy to open – child-proof containers are often also delay treatment of the reversible organic disease. The sodium content of some antacids can adversely affect cardiac and renal failure. A proton pump inhibitor should be A previously mentally alert and well-orientated 90-year-old woman became acutely confused two nights after hospital considered as prophylaxis against upper gastro-intestinal admission for bronchial asthma which, on the basis of peak complications in those most at risk. Improper prescription of drugs is a common cause of morbid- Answer ity in elderly people. Common-sense rules for prescribing do Prednisolone, cimetidine, digoxin and nitrazepam. Comment not apply only to the elderly, but are especially important in If an H2-antagonist is necessary, ranitidine is preferred in the this vulnerable group. It is likely that the patient no longer requires digoxin (which accumulates in the elderly). Take a full drug history (see Chapter 1), which should not be used for sedation in elderly (or young) asthmatics. The implications of a angiotensin receptor blockers in heart failure and high cardiovas- growing evidence base for drug use in elderly patients.
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The gas chromatogram is read like a bar code to account for the history of the bead buy celecoxib in india rheumatoid arthritis osteoarthritis. The presence of T1 shows that in the first stage of the synthesis the first amino acid residue is glycine discount 100mg celecoxib mastercard arthritis in elderly dogs. This residue will be attached via its the C-terminus of the peptide if a linker with an amino group was used and its N-terminus if a linker with an acid group was used buy celecoxib overnight delivery arthritis in outside of knee. The presence of T3 shows that the second residue is also glycine cheap 100 mg celecoxib with mastercard equine arthritis in back, whilst the presence of T5 and T6 indicates that the third amino acid in the peptide is serine. Silicon chips can be coded to receive and store radio signals in the form of a binary code. The silicon chip and beads are placed in a container known as a can that is porous to the reagents used in the synthesis. Each can is closed and treated as though it were one bead in a mix and split synthesis. The cans are divided into the required number of aliquots corresponding to the number of building blocks used in the initial step of the synthesis. Each batch of cans is reacted with its own building block and the chip is irradiated with the appropri- ate radio signal for that building block. The mix and split procedure is followed and at each step the chips in the batch are irradiated with the appropriate radio signal. At the end of the synthesis the prepared library compound is cleaved from the chip, which is interrogated to determine the history of the compound synthesized on the chip. The method has the advantage of producing larger amounts of the required compounds than the normal mix and split approach because the same compound is produced on all the beads in a can. Consequently, many of the strategies used for the preparation of libraries using solution chemis- try are directed to the purification of the products of each steps of the synthesis. This and other practical problems has usually restricted the use of solution combinatorial chemistry to synthetic pathways consisting of two or three steps. Combinatorial synthesis in solution can be used to produce libraries that consist of single compounds or mixtures using traditional organic chemistry. Single compound libraries are prepared using the parallel synthesis technique (see section 6. Libraries of mixtures are formed by separately reacting each of the members of a set of similar compounds with the same mixture of all the members of the second set of compounds. Consider, for example, a combinator- 1 5 ial library of amides formed by reacting a set of five acid chlorides (A –A ) with 1 10 ten amines (B –B ). Each of the five acid chlorides is reacted separately with an equimolar mixture of all ten amines and each of the amines is reacted with an equimolar mixture of all the acid chlorides (Figure 6. This produces a library consisting of a set of five mixtures based on individual acid halides and 10 mixtures based on individual amines. This means that each compound in the library is prepared twice, once from the acid chloride set and once from the amine set. A2 + (B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9,B10) Mixture 2 containing all the possible A2−B compounds. A5 + (B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9,B10) 5 Mixture 5 containing all the possible A −B compounds. The amine based set: B1 + (A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,) Mixture 6 containing all the possible B1−A compounds. This method of identifying the structure of the most active component of combinatorial libraries of mixtures is known as deconvolution (see section 6. It depends on both the mixtures containing the active compound giving a positive result for the assay procedure. It is not possible to identify the active structure if one of the sets of mixtures gives a negative result. In this case all the possible structures have to be synthesized and tested separately. However, it is generally found that the activities of the library mixtures are usually higher than those exhibited by the individual compounds responsible for activity after they have been isolated from the mixture. A key problem with very large com- binatorial libraries of mixtures is the large amount of work required to screen these libraries. Deconvolution is a method, based on the process of elimination, of reducing the number of screening tests required to locate the most active member of a library consisting of a mixture of all the components. It is based on producing and biologically assaying similar secondary libraries that contain one less build- ing block than the original library. It is emphasized that the biological assay is carried out on a mixture of all the members of the secondary library. If the secondary library is still as active as the original library the missing building block is not part of the active structure. Repetition of this process will eventually result in a library that is inactive, which indicates that the missing building block in this library is part of the active structure. This procedure is carried out for each of the building blocks at each step in the synthesis. Suppose, for example, one has a tripeptide library consisting of a mixture of 1000 compounds. This 1 10 library was produced from 10 different amino acids (A –A ) using two syn- thetic steps, each of which involved 10 building blocks (Figure 6. The 1 formation of a secondary library by omitting amino acid A from the initial set of amino acids but reacting these nine with all 10 amino acids in the first and second steps would produce 900 compounds. These compounds will not contain 1 amino acid residue A in the first position of the tripeptide. If the resulting library is biologically inactive the active compound must contain the residue at position one in the tripeptide. However, if the mixture is active the process must 1 be repeated using A but omitting a different amino acid residue from the synthesis. In the worst scenario it would mean that the 900 member library would have to be prepared ten times in order to determine first residue of the most active tripeptide. Repeating this process of omission, combinatorial 10 amino acid reactants 10 amino acid reactants Preparation of the original library 10 100 1000 The preparation of the first group of secondary libraries to find the Nine amino acid reactants 10 amino acid reactants first residue in the peptide. The preparation of the third group 10 amino acid reactants Nine amino acid reactants of secondary libraries to find the 10 100 900 third residue in the peptide. Further repetition but using groups of nine amino acid reactants in the second step will identify the third amino acid in the chain. In order to be effective, deconvolution procedures require that both the synthesis and assay of the library be rapid. The procedure is complicated when there is more than one active component in the library. In this case it is necessary to prepare and test all the possible compounds indicated by deconvo- lution in order to identify the most active compound in the library. What criteria should be satisfied by the building blocks used in a combinatorial synthesis?
When agents ence severe psychological disorders as they at once launched a tear gas attack on April 19 buy generic celecoxib online arthritis in neck diet, 1993 buy celecoxib 200mg otc arthritis psoriasis medication, to end the begin and resist immersion into an entirely new system purchase celecoxib 100 mg without prescription rheumatoid arthritis doterra. Some Bodies of 39 similarly dressed men and women psychologists believe that such mental illnesses as disso- were found in San Diego on March 26 buy generic celecoxib line rheumatoid arthritis remission diet, 1997, after a ciative identity disorders, pathologic adjustment reac- mass suicide led by Marshall Applewhite, cult leader of tions, major depressive disorders, and others may be at- Heaven’s Gate. The deaths were triggered by the cult’s tributed to the agonizing process of joining a charismatic belief that a flying saucer traveled behind comet Hale- group. Once immersed in the cult, members will often Bopp to take them home, an evolutionary existence cut all ties with their past lives, ending contact with their above the human level. Articles have appeared about the families and friends as they join a new social order that use of the Internet to recruit Heaven’s Gate followers. This kind of behavior is obviously less true of charismatic groups Further Reading such as the military and some types of self-help groups, Ankerberg, John and Weldon, John. The Wrong Way Home: Uncovering Pat- Interviews with former cult members have revealed terns of Cult Behavior in American Society. Boston: Bea- that in extremist religious cults, there are often tremen- con Press, 1990. Critics of current New Patterns of Religious Pluralism in America, edited tests claim that they discriminate against ethnic minori- by T. To dramatize the discriminatory na- ture of most intelligence testing, Professor Robert L. Williams devised the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity that requires a command of vocabulary items widely known among African Americans but not Culture-fair test familiar to most whites (such as “do rag” and “four cor- An intelligence test in which performance is not ners”) and a knowledge of black history and culture based on experience with or knowledge of a spe- (“Who wrote the Negro National Anthem? The first culture-fair test, called Army Ex- takers are also penalized in ways other than their unfa- amination Beta, was developed by the United States mil- miliarity with specific facts. Beginning in the postwar period, cul- them, further reduced by low levels of trust in and identi- ture-fair tests, which rely largely on nonverbal questions, fication with the person administering the test. In addi- have been used in public schools with Hispanic students tion, students from a minority culture may be more like- and other non-native-English speakers whose lack of fa- ly to interpret and answer a question in ways that differ miliarity with both English language and American cul- from the prescribed answer. The Cattell tests in predicting success in school, suggesting that in scales are intended to assess intelligence independent of their quest for academic success, members of minority cultural experience, verbal ability, or educational level. The tests consist mostly of paper-and-pencil questions involving the relationships Further Reading between figures and shapes. The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the youngest age group, utilize various objects instead of the Future of America. The Bell Curve: children age eight and up, include completing series, Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Culture-fair testing is a timely issue given current Mensh, Elaine, and Harry Mensh. His father was a successful provincial physician, and his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), had been a distinguished intellectual figure. Young Darwin attended the Shrewsbury School, and his early failure to achieve academic distinction continued at Edinburgh University, where he studied medicine, and at Cambridge University, where he studied theology. While at Cambridge, however, Darwin enthusiastically pursued natural history as an avo- cation, drawing the attention of botanist John Stevens Henslow (1796-1861) and geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873). In 1831, through his connection with Henslow, Darwin joined the expedition team aboard the survey ship H. Beagle headed for the coasts of South America, the Galápagos Islands, New Zealand, and Tas- mania. There is some indication that Darwin went on the voyage in order to accompany Captain FitzRoy. FitzRoy, as captain, was not to socialize with the lower status crew members on the ship, and he was worried about maintain- ing his mental health during the long, solitary voyage. Upon his return to England, Darwin de- principles hold that in the struggle for existence, some veloped his theory of evolution, one of the major intellec- individuals, because of advantageous biological adap- tual achievements of the nineteenth century. However, be- tation,are better able to occupy effectively a given eco- cause of his creationist perspective, some of the observa- logical niche and therefore will produce more offspring tions made during the voyage were not useful in the devel- than individuals who are less able. In 1858, when another theory challenged biblically oriented views about the scientist, Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) shared his nature and origins of humans and animals, Darwin was observations gathered in the Malay Archipelago, Darwin extremely cautious and continued his research for an- hastened to publish The Origin of Species to ensure his other 18 years before publishing it in 1859 as On the own work would receive recognition. Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; or, the Darwin’s theory of evolution postulates that all Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Within a few years, scientists were convinced and James Angell (1869-1949) in the United States, of the soundness of the theory, although popular debate who together founded the functionalist movement at about its ideological and theological implications has the University of Chicago. Sigmund Although psychology was one of the fields for Freud’s younger colleague, George J. Romanes (1848- which Darwin’s theory had revolutionary implications, 1894), to whom Darwin turned over his notes on ani- it was largely left to others—notably Darwin’s cousin mal behavior shortly before his death, established the Francis Galton—to expand them publicly. Paralleling the sci- toward the end of his career, Darwin published three ence of comparative anatomy, this field seeks to pro- books in which he explored how human mental quali- vide insights about human beings by studying the sim- ties could be understood as the result of evolution. In ilarities and differences between human and animal The Descent of Man (1871), he supported the contro- psychological functioning. In addition, Darwin’s prin- versial position that human beings are descended from ciple of natural selection led to a greater interest in animal ancestors. In line with this idea, he argued that variation and individual differences among members the mental activities of humans and animals are funda- of the same species. He identified the presence in animals of “human” qualities such as courage and devotion, and Darwin’s other books include The Variations of Ani- “human” emotions, including pride, jealousy, and mals and Plants under Domestication (1868), Insectivo- shame. After examining these and other common men- rous Plants (1875), and The Power of Movement in tal functions, such as memory, attention, and dream- Plants (1880). He was awarded membership in the Lon- ing, Darwin concluded that the mental difference be- don Geological Society in 1836 and won election to the tween humans and the higher animals is one of degree Royal Society in 1839. The Survival of Charles Darwin: A Biogra- mals (1872), Darwin posited that human emotional ex- phy of a Man and an Idea. New York: Random House, pressions have evolved over time because of their link 1984. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809- For example, an animal baring its teeth in rage is literally 1882. Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of or flight” reaction, a heightened state of nervous arousal, Scientific Creativity. Daydreaming Darwin’s final contribution to psychology was the A temporary escape from daily reality by forming publication in 1877 of Biographical Sketch of an Infant, mental pictures, usually in spontaneous, brief based on a detailed log he had kept on the development episodes, of other experiences. This milestone in the history of child psychology was probably the first Daydreams are a form of imagination. One seminal idea expressed in dreams, the person forms a mental image of a past expe- this short work is that the individual’s development par- rience or of a situation that he or she has never actually allels the development of the species to which it belongs. A daydream may be triggered by a situation, a memory, or a sensory input (sight, Darwin’s work had far-reaching influences on the taste, smell, sound, touch). Its emphasis on the individual’s adaptation to the environment helped es- The daydreamer may use these mental pictures to tablish the “functional” view of the mind and of human escape from reality temporarily, to overcome a frustrat- behavior, influencing such thinkers as John Dewey ing situation, or to satisfy hidden wishes. When the daydreamer’s daily routine is disrupt- ed—a driver misses an exit on the freeway continuously, or a student does not hear the teacher assigning home- Deductive reasoning work—he or she may want to consider whether the day- dreams are a symptom of a psychological problem.