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Ellis was wholly free from self-importance and No happier choice could have been made buy cheap serpina on-line anxiety chat room. He was it seems never to have occurred to him to seek no narrow-minded specialist generic 60 caps serpina free shipping anxiety symptoms dry mouth, and it was ﬁtting his own advancement; his thoughts were for that the ﬁrst and moving tribute paid to his the beneﬁt of his patients and of any organiza- memory came from his friend and colleague cheap serpina 60 caps fast delivery anxiety relief techniques, tion with which he was connected buy cheap serpina 60caps online anxiety symptoms pdf. It life was distinguished by simplicity and content- was the breadth of his interests that made Ellis ment. Few orthopedic sur- dren and there was a quiet elegance about their geons nowadays can claim to have a proper charming house in a pleasant backwater of knowledge of every aspect of their work, but Ellis Paddington. It was furnished with perfect taste; could and this invested his opinions with unusual there were even tapestries that Ellis himself value. He was very well read and by means of had worked in his odd moments of leisure. The other appointments, as at Lord Mayor Treloar’s garden was his particular delight and he would Hospital, Alton, and at the Heatherwood Hospi- invite the visitor to inspect his 15 varieties of lily, tal, Ascot, he accumulated a vast and varied expe- though his descriptions of their characteristics rience. His versatility was reﬂected in the papers were always punctuated by powerful impreca- he wrote; they were not numerous, just over 20, tions against his only enemies—the stray cats of but each dealt with some important aspect of a Paddington. This Three of his activities as a surgeon are partic- all-round competence in orthopedics was ularly noteworthy. Burns, 95 Who’s Who in Orthopedics his closest friend since they were undergraduates together, wrote Recent Advances in Orthopedic Surgery, an exceptionally valuable book that should have gone into further editions; it revealed the breadth of the authors’ interests. During the war, Ellis was posted to the emergency hospital at Park Prewett in Hampshire, where he worked with unremitting devotion. In 1945, he and Innes published a short but signiﬁcant paper on “Battle Casualties Treated by Penicillin,” based on a study of no less than 15,000 cases. A quotation from this paper reveals his sanity at a time when there was much uncritical enthusiasm: “Penicillin has made no difference to the paramount impor- tance of early and adequate surgery; it has, in addition, produced new difﬁculties in that the effect of penicillin on contaminated wounds obscures the extent of the infection of the tissues, and makes it difﬁcult to judge how radical surgery R. Elmslie spent the whole of his professional immense value in the elucidation of injuries of life as student and surgeon at St. Bartholomew’s the rotator cuff, and his published papers give Hospital and at the Royal National Orthopedic some indication of what might have been Hospital, except during World War I, when he was expected from him, had he lived longer. Ellis had just seen the last patient at strator of pathology and his knowledge of this his fracture clinic at St. As an orthopedic surgeon, Elmslie was one of the greatest of his day, next only to Robert Jones and perhaps Tubby. His ability to think clearly, his wisdom, imperturbability and admirable judg- ment were his powerful assets. Indeed the writer has never worked with anyone whose judgment always proved so sound; it seemed that he was incapable of being wrong. He was a competent and neat operator who devized several ﬁrst-class procedures. His only expressed vanity was to pride himself on sewing skin in, as he put it, “the manner of those who know best how to sew— women. He was in great demand for committee work in his own hospital, government departments, the Royal College of Surgeons (on the council of which he served from 1933 until his death), the British Orthopedic Association, the British Medical Association, the Chartered Society of Physiother- 96 Who’s Who in Orthopedics apy, and the Central Council for the Care of Crip- second year of residency at the Pennsylvania ples. His clear and logical exposition before the Crippled Children’s Hospital in Elizabethtown, Select Committee of the House of Lords is said he decided that working with crippled children to have carried the greatest weight in deciding the was to be his specialty. As a man, Elmslie lacked the warmth Washington, DC area and began his practice, of Robert Jones, whose friend and admirer he which was to continue until his retirement in always was. He started as assistant to another physician, reserve did not prevent him inspiring the greatest but he was impatient to do more work with crip- enthusiasm and devotion in his pupils, which pled children and saw a glaring need for such they still retain. The area had no facilities that special- ized in orthopedic deformities, which were far more common in the past than they are today. Poliomyelitis was a major problem, and club foot, dislocated hips, osteomyelitis, and curvature of the spine also contributed to the need for recon- structive surgeons and long-term hospital care. Engh opened his own practice in 1938, in his home in Alexandria, Virginia, but he had a desire to own a clinic or hospital. He bought land in Arlington and established ofﬁces, which he called the Anderson Clinic. He also established a crippled children’s program through the Arlington Health Department. Previously, such children, especially in rural areas, were being seen only once or twice a year, and few operations were being done. In addi- tion, he instituted community-based clinics for handicapped children at Gallinger Hospital (now DC General Hospital) in Washington and at Arlington Hospital in Arlington. Engh traveled throughout the metropolitan Washington area to see patients at a half-dozen Otto Anderson ENGH hospitals, frequently taking his wife and three 1904–1988 children with him on weekends. Engh converted the physical- Otto Engh was a native of Johnstown, Pennsyl- therapy ﬂoor of the Anderson Clinic into an 18- vania. One of six sons of immigrants—his father, bed hospital, complete with iron lungs, to treat a foreman in a steel mill, had come from Sweden, victims of poliomyelitis, because of the desperate and his mother from Norway—he and his broth- need for beds for such patients. The construction ers were given the middle name of Anderson, of an entire hospital for orthopedic surgery fol- which had been their father’s name before he lowed a few years later. In the 1950s, the hospital’s name was musician; he almost became a professional changed to the National Hospital for Orthopedics performer, but his wife encouraged him to pursue and Rehabilitation, new wings were added, and his medical career. Engh received his medical degree from and early 1960s, the hospital was designated Temple University, Philadelphia. During his by the federal government to serve as a pilot 97 Who’s Who in Orthopedics demonstration project on rehabilitation. The hos- world and art books in which pictures of defor- pital remains a private, non-proﬁt institution. Engh served as President of the Virginia Orthopedic Society, the District of Columbia Orthopedic Society, and the Alexandria Medical Society. He was Chief of Staff at Alexandria Hospital as well as at the National Hospital for Orthopedics and Rehabilitation. Engh was a distinguished orthopedic surgeon and a leader in the ﬁeld of orthopedics. He is particularly remembered in his community for his early work with children who were crip- pled by poliomyelitis, his founding of the National Hospital for Orthopedics and Rehabili- tation, and the Anderson Clinic, a practice that continues under the direction of his two sons. Otto Anderson Engh died at his home in Falls Church, Virginia, on April 11, 1988. He was survived by his wife, Sara, of Falls Church, Virginia; three children, Charles A. Engh, MD, of Arlington, Virginia, Sara Engh Reger of Shaker Heights, Ohio, and Gerard A. Wilhelm Heinrich ERB 1840–1921 Erb’s fame was made possible by hard work over a long period of time, with close attention to detail.
On uneven surfaces trusted 60caps serpina anxiety symptoms like heart attack, rigid-frame wheelchairs give a bumpy ride 60 caps serpina visa anxiety zone, becoming dangerous when one or more wheels lift off the ground discount serpina 60 caps on line anxiety symptoms upon waking up. Rigid-frame wheelchairs do not fold neatly for easy storage (although their wheels pop off) and are too bulky for some cars generic serpina 60caps line anxiety meme. The major success of E&J was designing a sturdy and reliable folding chair. Although ﬂexible-frame chairs are heavier, they offer some advan- tages over rigid-frame models. They are safer on rough terrain, fold easily for storage, and ﬁt into most cars. They routinely have push handles just in case the user cannot self-propel (many rigid-frame chairs do not). But their weight undeniably demands more energy to propel, and they appear more like the prototypical wheelchair. The choice of rigid- or ﬂexible-frame wheelchairs involves more deci- sions: about wheel size; placement and angle (camber) of wheels; width of Wheeled Mobility / 205 hand rims for pushing wheels; and wheel locks or hand brakes. These deci- sions must consider not only the users’ physical attributes (e. The optimal design for a marathoner or rugby player differs signiﬁcantly from that for a person who still walks but uses a wheelchair for traveling to and from work. Power Wheelchairs and Scooters Power wheelchairs and scooters both rely on batteries to transport users. Power wheelchairs roll on four wheels, with the battery power pack below the seat, ﬂip-up footplates, and swingaway footrest hangers. Users typically maneuver them using a short, vertical joystick positioned on the armrest. People unable to move their hands operate power wheelchairs using so- phisticated technologies, which respond to chin movements or puffs and sips of air blown through a strawlike device (Warren 1990). In contrast, scooters—undeniably wheelchairs, given their function and purpose—place their users behind the controls. Scooters are built on a plat- form, with a rotating “captain’s chair” rising from the back, battery under- neath the seat, and a steering column on the front, sometimes bearing a basket, horn, and headlight. Because of their conﬁguration, scooters can carry packages and suitcases (e. Most scooters are three-wheeled, but because of their potential instability, four-wheeled versions are also available. Scooters are safe and appropriate only for people with good hand and arm strength and upper-body balance. Many users still stand and walk short distances, riding the scooter only for longer trips. Power wheelchairs and scooters are either front- or rear-wheel drive (i. Front-wheel drives have a small turning radius, so people can rotate fully in tight spaces. Sur- mounting low obstacles is easier, although the weight of power equipment generally precludes curb jumping. Rear-wheel models give a greater sense of control but need wider spaces for turning. Rear-wheel-drive power wheelchairs can tip over, when the front casters lift off the ground as heavy rear wheels accelerate. Power chairs and scooters operate off either gel-cell or wet-cell (lead acid) batteries. Gel-cell batteries are slightly less powerful and shorter- lasting than wet-cell, but they need less maintenance and do not spill; wet- cell batteries require users to maintain speciﬁed water levels, and they can 206 W heeled Mobility spill or leak dangerous acid. Meticulous recharging of bat- teries is essential to avoid power failures. Automatic battery chargers typ- ically plug directly into standard electrical outlets. Other wheelchair users who still walk emphasize two primary reasons for sometimes riding—fatigue and frequent falls. I said, gee whiz, it’s going to take me a long time to walk through that supermarket, even holding onto a shopping cart. I liked going to the supermarket, because you can hold onto the cart and walk around. I traded it in for that old bus [a minivan] and got a little crane to lift the cart. Edith Leder, a physical therapist, echoes Louisa’s comments, saying “walking isn’t really the most important thing most people do. It’s really an asset to me, because I suffer with my balance and my walking, my gait, they call it. Jody Farr had danced around using a wheelchair for years: “It’s deﬁnitely a decision you have to come to yourself. She refused and continued walking until a bad fall hospitalized her for a week, followed by two weeks on the rehabilitation unit. Warren, who was my senior colleague and treated me like gold, really wanted me to stop walking. I would not do that just for him, though, as good as he was to me, a father ﬁgure. A wheelchair is an invalid thing, and I couldn’t manage pushing it myself. The guy from the medical supply store wanted to just drop off this wheelchair one afternoon, and I said, ‘Wait, I’m not sure that I want this. Farr has used a scooter ever since, although she has a manual wheelchair for airplane travel. Nelda Norton’s mother had used a wheelchair before she died, so they had one at home. He uses all his energy in the air- port just trying to get to the plane. These fears are ironic given that today’s wheelchair technologies increase independence and control. Perhaps the contradiction arises from differing frames of reference: a focus on speciﬁc physical losses or on the whole per- son. People who fear dependence often emphasize their psychic determina- tion to endure and push on. The interviews suggest that this frame of reference ﬂips at some point, prompted by increasing physical debility or frustration with existing limi- tations.
The formation of a At Stanford Cohen began the study of plasmids—bits clot by 12 hours and the subsequent disappearance of the clot of DNA that exist apart from the genetic information-carrying by 24 hours could produce a so-called false negative if the test chromosomes—to determine the structure and function of were only observed at the 24-hour time buy cheap serpina line anxiety heart palpitations. But Cohen found that the independent See also Biochemical analysis techniques; Laboratory tech- plasmids had the ability to transfer DNA to a related-species niques in microbiology cell cheap 60caps serpina free shipping anxiety 6 weeks postpartum, though the phenomenon was not a commonplace occur- rence order discount serpina on-line anxiety 411. In 1973 Cohen and his colleagues successfully achieved a DNA transfer between two different sources purchase 60caps serpina with visa anxiety disorder definition. They found that the DNA would repli- tally changed in 1973 when Stanley N. Next, the group tried this technique for transferring DNA, the molecular basis of hered- experiment with an unrelated bacteria, Staphylococcus. Not only was DNA propaga- too, showed that the original Staphylococcus plasmid genes tion made possible among different bacterial species, but would transfer their biological properties into the E. The second attempt at DNA replication between DNA or genetic engineering, introduced the world to the age unlike species was that of animal to bacteria. This experiment had great significance for DNA technology, attempting to ease concerns regarding DNA human application; bacteria containing human genetic infor- experimentation. The biological cloning DNA experiments resulted in an overly cautious approach methods used by Cohen and other scientists came to be pop- that slowed the progress of DNA research and reinforced the ularly known as genetic engineering. The cloning process public’s belief that real, not conjectural, hazards existed in consisted of four steps: separating and joining DNA mole- the field of biotechnology. In an article on this subject pub- cules acquired from unlike species; using a gene carrier that lished in 1977 for Science he pointed out that during the ini- could replicate itself, as well as the unlike DNA segment tial recombinant DNA experiments, billions of bacteria joined to it; introducing the combined DNA molecule into played host to DNA molecules from many sources; these another bacterial host; and selecting out the clone that carries DNA molecules were grown and propagated “without haz- the combined DNA. And the majority DNA research not only added to the store of scientific of these experiments were carried out prior to the strict knowledge about how genes function, but also had practical containment procedures specified in the current federal applications for medicine, agriculture, and industry. For instance, his work with bac- fact, insulin made from bacteria was just seven years from terial transposons, the “jumping genes” that carry antibiotic becoming a reality. Still in the future at that time, but proved resistance, has yielded valuable information about how this possible within two decades, were supermarket tomatoes process functions. He also developed a method of using hardy enough to survive cross-country trucking that taste as “reporter genes” to study the behavior of genes in bacteria and good as those grown in one’s own garden. In addition, he has searched for the mecha- nology, other plants were also bred for disease and pollution nism that triggers plasmid inheritance and evolution. Scientists also projected that nitrogen-fixing knowledge in this area offers the medical community more microbes, such as those that appear in the soil near the roots effective tools for fighting antibiotic resistance and better of soybeans and other protein-rich plants, could be dupli- understanding of genetic controls. An introspective, modest man, he is most at home in said, in an article written for the July 1975 issue of Scientific American: “Gene manipulation opens the prospect of con- the laboratory and the classroom. He has been at Stanford structing bacterial cells, which can be grown easily and inex- University for more than twenty-five years, serving as chair pensively, that will synthesize a variety of biologically of the Department of Genetics from 1978 to 1986. He is the produced substances such as antibiotics and hormones, or author of more than two hundred papers, and has received enzymes that can convert sunlight directly into food sub- many awards for his scientific contributions, among them the stances or usable energy. Some people Chemical Society Award in 1992, and the Helmut Horten were concerned that the potential existed for organisms Research Award in 1993. Cohen has held memberships in altered by recombinant DNA to become hazardous and numerous professional societies, including the National uncontrollable. Although safety guidelines had long been in Academy of Sciences (chairing the genetics section from place to protect both scientists and the public from disease- 1988 to 1991), the Institute of Medicine of the National causing bacteria, toxic chemicals, and radioactive substances, Academy, and the Genetics Society of America. In addition, genetic engineering seemed, to those outside the laboratory, he served on the board of the Journal of Bacteriology in the to require measures much more restrictive. Even though, as 1970s, and was associate editor of Plasmid from 1977 to responsible scientists, Cohen and others who were directly 1986. Since 1977, he has been a member of the Committee on involved with DNA research had already placed limitations Genetic Experimentation for the International Council of on the types of DNA experiments that could be performed, Scientific Unions. Married in 1961 to Joanna Lucy Wolter, the National Academy of Sciences established a group to and the father of two children, Cohen lives mostly near study these concerns and decide what restrictions should be Stanford University in a small, rural community. In 1975, an international conference was held on away from his laboratory and his students has been spent ski- this complicated issue, which was attended by scientists, ing, playing five-string banjo, and sailing his aptly named lawyers, legislators, and journalists from seventeen countries. Throughout this period, Cohen spent much time speaking to the public and testifying to government agencies regarding See also Microbial genetics 126 WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY Cold, common COHN, FERDINAND JULIUS (1828-1898) Vibrio were classified as Desmobacteria, and Spirillum and Cohn, Ferdinand Julius Spirochaeta were classified as Spirobacteria. Some of the gen- German microbiologist era could be further divided into subcategories. Ferdinand Cohn, a founder of modern microbiology, became Through the studies of Bacillus subtilis Cohn was able the first to recognize and study bacteriology as a separate sci- to disprove the earlier theory of spontaneous generation. Cohn developed a system for classifying bacteria and recognized that some solutions were easily sterilized by heat, discovered the importance of heat-resistant endospores. He found that still others, pathogens could be found in drinking water and spoke of the such as hay infusions, could not be sterilized at all. Finally, Cohn worked covered heat-resistant structures called endospores, not spon- with Robert Koch on the development of the etiology of the taneous generation, were responsible for tainting sterilized anthrax bacillus. Endospores are not killed in boiling water while the Cohn initially began his studies in botany at the vegetative cells are. It was the heat resistant endospores from University of Breslau in 1844. After being denied entry into which bacteria grew, discounting the old theory of sponta- the doctoral program in 1846 because of his Jewish heritage, neous generation. There he completed his doctoral Early on Cohn assisted in diagnosing fungal infections degree in 1847, at the age of 19, on the structure and germi- of crops and provided treatment options to the farmers for nation of seeds. Additionally, Cohn recognized that water After returning to Breslau in 1849, Cohn was presented sources were capable of harboring and transferring infectious with a top of the line microscope from his father. It was Robert Koch who first identified studied the cell biology of plants including the growth and the pathogen that caused cholera in the drinking water; how- division of plant cells, plasma streaming, cell differentiation, ever, Cohn also analyzed the drinking water and found disease and cellular structures. In time, Cohn’s studies were redirected and non-disease causing microorganisms. His efforts on the system for chemical analysis of water and claimed that drink- developmental and sexual cycles of these microorganisms led ing water should be monitored for microorganisms on a regu- to important advancements in cell biology. At that time, bacteriology was an emerging field and Later when Robert Koch was studying anthrax bacil- although scientists knew that bacteria existed, they had failed lus, Koch sought the help of Cohn. Scientists began to name tance of studying the disease causing anthrax bacillus and bacteria without regard for someone else that had already worked with Koch to further investigate the etiology of the observed and named the very same bacteria. In 1875, Cohn founded the journal Beitrage zur tists believed bacteria to be a single species and that variations Biologie der Pflanzen and published Koch’s findings on observed were due to different stages of development. He pro- See also Water quality; Cell cycle and cell division; History of posed that bacteria could be divided into groups based on microbiology whether they had similar development, chemical make-up, or descent. In 1875, he defined bacteria as “chlorophyll-less cells of characteristic shape that multiply by cross division and live CCold, commonOLD, COMMON as singe cells, filamentous cell chains, or cell aggregates. A drug After comprehensive studies of bacteria, Cohn believed that will kill only one or two of the viruses would be of little that bacteria were related to algae and should thus be classified use since the patient would not know which of the viruses was in the plant kingdom. Additionally, Cohn studied the growth of the one that brought on his cold. Cold symptoms develop gradually and are that carbon dioxide could not be utilized as a carbon source in relatively mild.
Automated marking may be difficult for such assessments order discount serpina online anxiety brain, and the teacher is likely to have to do a substantial Advantages and disadvantages of web based learning amount of work before he can add his or her comments to the Advantages student’s record buy discount serpina online anxiety symptoms generalized anxiety disorder. Further guidance on how to design web based x Ability to link resources in many different formats assessments for online courses can be found at www order 60 caps serpina fast delivery anxiety medication. Appropriate technology and reasonable computer x Learners find it frustrating if they cannot access graphics cheap serpina anxiety level quiz, images, skills are needed to get the best out of web based or online and video clips because of poor equipment learning. Programmes and web pages can be designed to x The necessary infrastructure must be available and affordable x Information can vary in quality and accuracy, so guidance and accommodate different technical specifications and versions of signposting is needed software. It is frustrating for learners, however, if they are trying x Students can feel isolated to work on the internet with slow access or cannot download images and videos they need. On the other hand, web based programmes may, for example, encourage more independent and active learning and are often an efficient means of delivering course materials. Effective web teaching and learning Course designers need to remember that younger students are more likely to be familiar with using the internet than older learners, who may feel less comfortable with a web based course. To get the best out of their learning experience, learners need basic computer skills, support, and guidance. Teachers must design their courses to encourage effective web based learning rather than aimless “surfing. This change means that doctors are becoming more adept at using computers and online resources to support their daily work and continuing professional development. Electronic media can facilitate access to evidence based 44 Web based learning resources such as the Cochrane Library. These web based Further reading clinical support sites are excellent resources for postgraduate “on the job” learning. The online learning handbook:developing awareness of good practice, and standards should be set in and using web based learning. The role of teachers is to ensure that the learning environment provided takes account of learners’ needs and ensures that they are effectively prepared and supported. Online learning has advantages, but web based learning should not always be viewed as the method of choice because barriers (such as inadequate equipment) can easily detract from student learning. The technology must therefore be applied appropriately and not used simply because it is available and new or because students and teachers have particular expectations of this means of course delivery. Teaching materials can often distract learners rather than help them to learn. Common avoidable problems include overcrowded or illegible slides, irrelevant or badly prepared handouts, and incompatible multimedia equipment. It is important therefore to know how to create effective teaching materials. Ground rules Five basic principles apply to preparing teaching materials, irrespective of the type of material you choose: links, intelligibility, general style, highlighting, and targeting (LIGHT). You may sometimes decide to ignore one or more of these principles, but if you do, think carefully about what you are trying to achieve. Links Your teaching materials should have obvious and direct links to your talk, discussion, or presentation. Handouts are the main offenders in this category, and it is not unusual for handouts to have little in common with the talk. It is quite acceptable for the Preparing overhead transparencies teaching materials to give some additional information, but this Do should not be excessive. How this is achieved will depend on the medium used x Limit each transparency to one idea or concept and the venue of the talk or presentation. Diagrams can help x Use small print x Use overhead transparencies packed with tables and figures to clarify a complex message. If you are using slides or overhead x Use light colours transparencies, the size of the print needs to be large enough to be read from the back of the auditorium. General style You should aim to use a consistent style throughout your Uniformity in the teaching materials will teaching materials, particularly if you are giving a series of talks. Highlighting It is easy to overdo highlighting by emphasising virtually every point that Highlighted information helps to emphasise important issues or pivotal points in a developing argument. This reduces the usefulness of the technique and hides the highlighting include changing the colour of text or underlining words or phrases. This also applies to videotapes and really pivotal shifts in a morass of highlighted text. Targeting It is important that both the type of educational event (for example, presentation, seminar, discussion) and the teaching materials that supplement it are targeted at what your students Target your talk at learners’ needs—don’t need to learn. Targeting therefore requires an awareness of just pull out the slides or overheads from what knowledge and skills your students already have. This can a previous talk 46 Creating teaching materials be difficult to judge, but it is worth spending time finding out about your expected audience. It becomes easier if you are Types and uses of teaching materials doing a series of talks with the same group as you can get feedback from the learners to help you plan more effectively. Boards,flip charts—Small groups, problem based learning tutorials, workshops Lecture notes—Small and large groups; help to improve interactivity Types of teaching materials Overhead projector—Small and large groups, workshops, and interactive sessions Black, green, or white boards 35 mm slides and PowerPoint—Generally large groups and lecture These are ideal for brainstorming sessions and small group formats Videos—Good for clinical teaching in larger groups (use film of work. If you are doing the writing, try not to talk at the same patients); also for teaching communication skills and practical time as it is difficult for your learners to hear you if you have skills (students can keep films for self appraisal) your back to them. Remember the LIGHT principles, and try to Life and plastic models—Anatomy teaching in small groups or for self put concepts, not an essay, on the board. Make sure that directed learning everyone has finished copying information before you rub the Computer assisted learning packages—Small groups with a tutor; large board clean. Using different colours can add emphasis and groups in computer laboratories; self directed learning Skills centres and simulators—Small groups learning clinical skills highlight your important messages. Photocopies of handwritten notes (and frequently photocopied elderly pages) look scrappy and tend not to be valued. Give Leave spaces in the handout for your learners to record the results of interactive parts of your talk—this ensures handouts to the learners at the beginning of the talk as copying that the handout the learners take away has more value down information is not a good use of their limited “face to than the one they were given. Use headings and diagrams to make the handouts exercises to be completed later, thus linking self directed intelligible. It is a good backup resource, and for critical presentations it is comforting to know that, if all else fails, you have transparencies in your bag. Presentations using an overhead projector have the advantage that they allow you to face your audience while pointing out features on the transparency. Ensure that the transparencies will fit the projector—most will display A4 size, but some are smaller, so check in advance. The absolute minimum height for text on transparencies is 5 mm, although using larger text and fewer words usually produces a more effective educational tool. Several simple transparencies are usually better than one complicated one. It is fairly straightforward to design your transparency on a computer then print it using a colour printer.
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