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Paralysis may be explained by spinal cord compression due to fractures in the thoracic spine and possibly by hypocalcemia buy amoxil 500mg line antibiotic chicken, although the latter has not yet been demonstrated buy amoxil 250 mg with amex antibiotic wiki. Calcium nephropathy can also occur when birds are raised on diets containing 3% calcium instead of the normal 0 buy amoxil 500 mg line antibiotic for mastitis. Hypocalcemia Syndrome in African Grey Parrots Hypocalcemia characterized by seizures has been described in raptors and African Grey Parrots order amoxil american express bacterial pneumonia. A unique feature of this syndrome in African Grey Parrots is that demineralization of the skeleton to maintain normal calcium levels does not occur. Hypo- calcemia is an important problem to consider in an African Grey Parrot that repeatedly falls off its perch. Administration of parenteral calcium and suf- ficient dietary uptake of calcium resolves clinical signs. A dietary calcium deficiency is suspected, but not confirmed as the etiologic agent. The higher incidence of hypocalcemia in dosteal bone formation and a distended abdomen secondary to African Grey Parrots might therefore be associated oviductal enlargement. These findings are suggestive of hyperes- with lower plasma concentrations of free calcium. Polyostotic Hyperostosis and polyostotic hyperostosis may be related, and the In female budgerigars, polyostotic hyperostosis (Fig- latter may be a pathologic exacerbation of a physi- ure 23. Hy- fication is often seen in association with ovarian perestrogenism has also been associated with ab- tumors. The basement membrane is in contact with the blood vessels, while the opposite cell membrane faces the colloid. Compared to the thyroid gland in mammals, the avian thyroid produces more T4 than T3. The activity of the 5’-monodeiodination sively enlarging abdominal mass, weight loss and a reduced fecal enzyme is hormonally controlled by hypothalamic output despite a normal appetite. Pathology Histologic examination of the thyroid gland is a use- ful and reliable means of differentiating between various thyroid disorders. The Thyroid Glands In primary hypothyroidism, there is a loss of follicles resulting either from thyroiditis or atrophy, while in secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism, the thyroid Anatomy and Physiology follicles are distended with colloid and the lining epithelial cells become flattened. The colloid is uni- The thyroid glands in birds are paired organs that lie formly dense with complete or nearly complete ab- on each side of the trachea in the thoracic inlet. A sence of resorption vacuoles at the periphery of the connecting isthmus is absent. Venous return is In endemic goiter (caused by iodine deficiency), the through the thyroid veins, which empty into the thyroid gland is diffusely enlarged because of cellular jugular vein. The ac- thyroid gland lacks calcitonin cells, which are located cumulation of thyroglobulin occurs because poorly in the ultimobranchial glands. Some thyroid areas The thyroid lobes are composed of follicles sur- may atrophy with concomitant fibrosis. The pathologic changes result in considerable Goiter in Budgerigars destruction of the thyroid. Lymphocytic infiltration The most frequent clinical disease of the thyroid of the thyroid gland is also a common finding with gland in birds is goiter in budgerigars, caused by leukosis in chickens, and it may be difficult to differ- feeding an iodine-deficient diet (usually seed mix- entiate autoimmune thyroiditis from leukosis. In budgerigars with goiter, clinical changes associated with tuberculosis or other chronic infec- are limited to regurgitation and dyspnea caused by tions, especially in Anseriformes. Specific signs of hypothyroid function are Normal thyroid histology is also dependent on the absent. The size of the tivity can be observed in molting pigeons: the height glands can exceed 10 mm compared to a normal size of the thyroid epithelium increases and colloid is 100 of about 2 mm, while the weight can show a 100-fold resorbed from the follicles. If the glands are cystic they may weigh 1000 mg and be palpable at Thyroid Disorders the thoracic inlet. Radiographically, a dorsal or ven- tral displacement of the trachea may be visible. Diseases of the thyroid gland may be accompanied by thyroid enlargement (goiter), hyperfunction or hypo- Goiter can be prevented by placing a bird on a com- function. The dietary requirement of ondary or tertiary, depending on the location of the iodine is about 20 µg per week for a 35 g budgerigar. Only goiter has been adequately solution in the drinking water (1 drop per 20 ml documented in birds and may be caused by neoplastic water): first week, daily; second week, three times a disease or by iodine deficiency. Certain breeds (eg, White Carneaux) are birds,112 but clinical signs associated with this condi- 44 more susceptible than others. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas Clinical findings of thyroid enlargement in budgerigars have been reported in budgerigars,12 a Scarlet Ma- Obesity caw and some other birds from zoological collections Regurgitation (see Chapter 25). Like thyroid tu- Obesity mors in man and domestic mammals, it is to be Palpable mass (thoracic inlet) expected that some avian thyroid tumors will have Reduced fertility autonomic hormone production and will cause hyper- Reduced hatching rate thyroidism; however, no reports are available in Unhealthy squabs birds. Affected birds show a statements has been a low plasma T when compared4 reduced fertility, reduced hatchability and reduced with a reference interval established in a single ran- viability of squabs. A diagnosis of mental retardation and defective plumage develop- hypothyroidism should not be based on low baseline ment (fringed and elongated feathers with loss of thyroxine concentrations or on a “favorable response to administration of thyroxin. Chickens with genetic hypothy- roidism have low T4 concentrations, obesity, rather based on suggestive clinical signs, especially defec- silky plumage, delayed sexual development or de- tive plumage development, in conjunction with fail- layed maturity (Figure 23. In man and dogs, various non-thyroidal illnesses have been shown to favor the formation of T to3 protect the body from the catabolic state that accom- panies many of these diseases. This phenomenon has been designated the “low T3 syndrome,” though af- fected subjects remain euthyroidic. The measurement of T4 would seem to be the most logical choice for evaluat- ing birds; however, even plasma T concentrations4 can be influenced by drugs, handling, bleeding,107 food intake, environmental temperature,108 in- creased plasma corticosterone concentration23 and infections with Eimeria maxima. Obesity and lipoma formation are frequently discussed as 110 signs of hypothyroidism in companion birds; however, affected below the detection limit of the assay. Thyroxine supplemen- tation should be used only in birds with documented cases of hypothyroidism (courtesy of Tom Tully). This suggests that the inhibitory effects of Hyperthyroidism iodides on the serum concentrations of the thyroid Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis results from over- hormones are probably partially overcome by the secretion of thyroid hormones. In man, it pothyroidism or both in subjects with normal under- may result from diffuse hyperactivity of the gland lying thyroid function is uncommon. Most patients (Graves’ disease) or as a result of a single hyperplas- who develop disease have received large quantities of tic nodule (toxic adenoma). The administration of iodides may also induce Thyroiditis hyperthyroidism (Jod-Basedow phenomenon), but in Various forms of thyroiditis have been described in these cases the gland is already abnormal. Etiologies include pyogenic organisms, viruses and autoimmune phenomena (Hashimoto’s thyroidi- Two Fairy Blue Penguins developed signs of hyperir- tis). Clinical signs are variable and may be associated ritability after the use of iodide-containing disinfec- with goiter hyper- or hypothyroidism.
Gallic acid (3) generic amoxil 500mg online infection journal, which showed high scavenging capacity (at 2μM) proved to be highly toxic buy generic amoxil 250mg antibiotic 83 3147. This showed that gallic acid (3) can scavenge free radicals fonl1ing prooxidant intenl1ediates cost of amoxil virus us department of justice. Isoquercetin (2) buy genuine amoxil infection you get in hospital, brevifolin carboxylic acid (4), methyl brevifolin carboxylate (5), and isomonospermoside (butin-3-g1ucoside) (32). Which scavenged free radicals without forming prooxidant intenl1ediates were further tested for protection of Lingulodinium polyedrum against. Investigation of biological activity and of some organic chemical constituents from the seeds of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. In the present work, two selected Myanmar medicinal plants, namely Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. Antibacterial screening by agar well diffusion method against Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumalis, Candida albicans and Mycobacterium species of different extracts of Mak-kat seeds and Taw-shauk roots indicated that polar extracts are good candidates for active compounds, especially ethyl acetate extract. Xanthoxylin (L-1) was isolated as major constituent from active ethyl acetate extract of Z alatum Roxb. The isolated compounds were characterized and identified by chemical methods, modern spectroscopic methods and reference to biosynthesis pathways. Finally, the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. There were significant reduction in faecal outputs and frequency of droppings when the plant extracts of 3. In addition, the aqueous extract (3g/kg dose) was found to possess significant antidiarrheal activity, with experimental in vivo antidiarrheal index of 71. Investigation of chemical constituents and bioactivities of some organic compounds from rhizomes of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb. Besenbergia pandurata (Roxb) (Seik-phoo) red and yellow rhizomes were chosen for the investigation of chemical analysis and biological action. Rhizomes and roots of this plants are used in cases of stomachic, cough, confinement, diarrhea, also for rheumatism and muscular pains and as tonic and skin liniment in traditional medicine. By silica gel column chromatographic separation technique, seven compounds namely, pinostrobin (A-1, 2%, m. Therefore, Seik-phoo (yellow rhizome) may possess higher antimicrobial potency than that of red rhizome. It was observed that both extracts were free from acute toxic or harmful effects in the concentration range from 3g/kg to the maximal permissible dose 12g/kg. Antidiarrhea activity of aqueous extract of Seik-phoo (yellow) rhizome was carried out using castor oil induced anti diarrhea model in mice. The response parameters assessed includes antidiarrhea, anti secretory and intestinal transit activaties. A significant reduction of fecal output and the frequency of droppings in the first hour of administration (53. Thus, the rhizomes of Seik-phoo (red and yellow) plant may be used as antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and antioxidant agents in traditional medicine formulations. Investigation of chemical constituents and mosquito repellency of Melaleuca leucadendron Linn. The repellent activity was tested on human volunteers by mean of arm in cage studies againts A. No lethality in mice was observed when fed with 95% ethanol extract of Ka-lan leaves up to 9g/kg body weight dose. Investigation of mosquito repellent activities of some compounds in Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitts. Asteracerce, Mel-di-dote in Myanmar), were selected for investigation of mosquito repellent activity. The result revealed that topical application of 25% (w/v) citronella oil in acetone-water provided at least 1½ h of complete protection. In addition, 100%, 25% 10%, 5% and 2% (w/v) citronella oil after 6h single application reduced the biting rate by 90. All isolated compounds showed better repellent activity than their mother extracts. Because of its high yield, it can be considered as an alternative in mosquito repellent formulation. All the plant extracts and isolated compounds did not cause dermal irritation when applied to human skin. Investigation of organic constitutents and bioactivity of the leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. In the present work, investigation of some phyto organic constituents and some biological activities such as antimicrobial and antimalarial activities were carried out on the leaves of two selected medicinal plants: Vitex trifolia Linn. These plants are traditionally used as remedy for the treatment of sinusitis and malaria. The identifies of all of the isolated compounds were determined by measurement of their melting points, some physico-chemical properties and also by modern spectroscopic techniques. All of these extracts were tested on 6 strains of pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumalis, Candida albican and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by agar plate diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds such as vitexilactone, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, a mixture of fatty acid ethyl esters (E) and n-hexadecanoic acid were also determined by agar plate diffusion method against S. Among them, vitexilactone and p-hydroxy benzoic acid and mixture of fatty acid esters (E) were found to exhibit the antimicrobial activity effectively against the S. Therefore, from these observations it can be inferred that vitexilactone and p-hydroxy benzoic acid, oil mixture (E) and n-hexadecanoic acid can be used in the treatment of diseases namely; sinusitis, skin infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, external ear infections, septicemia, tuberculosis and leprosy etc. The morphological and microscopical characters of the leaves, stems and roots were also studied. In morphological study, the plant is annual herb; the stem is ascending or spreading, simple or much branched. Microscopical characters of leaves, stems and roots were also undertaken and examination of powdered drug were carried out for standardization of drugs. In microscopical study, the epidermal cell of lower and upper surface of lamina were wavy and covered with striated cuticle. Calcium oxalate crystals formed as bundles of raphide present in spongy layers of leaves, cortex layers of leaves, cortex layers of stems and peridem layer of roots. The collected plants were dried, powdered and stored in airtight bottle for further use. The preliminary phytochemical examination was carried out to examine the chemical constituents. This examination showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, amino acid, phenolic compounds, reducing sugar, saponins, steroid, tannins and terpenoids. Physicochemical characterization such as moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, polar to non-polar soluble matter content were carried out to determine the soluble matter content. Isolation of chemical constituents of the plant extract was carried out by silica gel column chromatography and selective solvent solubility method. Various solvent extracts of plant and isolated compounds (oleanolic acid and asperuloside) were tested against different microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method.
Magnesium deficiency can be induced by either High doses of enteral magnesium are required to decreased intake or increased losses order discount amoxil online treatment for uti in goats. Because bone keep serum magnesium and calcium levels close to magnesium reservoir does not readily exchange normal range [38 amoxil 250 mg without a prescription what causes antibiotic resistance yahoo, 45] purchase amoxil online from canada antibiotic resistance ted talk. Decreased intake of mag- tract have much higher magnesium concentrations (up nesium can be secondary to diminished amount to 16 mg dL–1) than from the upper gastrointestinal of enteric Mg2+ delivery or reduced absorption tract generic 250 mg amoxil otc antibiotic natural. Magnesium wasting can be via gastroin- fistulas, iliostomy or gastric drainage rarely develop testinal or renal route. In contrast, chronic diarrhea and diagnosis of hypomagnesemia will be discussed in short bowel syndrome can be associated with hypo- the Sect. Patients with bone formation, which is thought to be responsible for severe burns can be prone to develop hypomagnesemia Ca2+ and Mg2+ sequestration into bone tissue . In this condition, rapid cellular uptake of tion of sodium and chloride in this segment promotes water, glucose, potassium, phosphorus, and magne- urinary loss of magnesium. Expansion of extracellular Chapter 5 Abnormalities in Magnesium Metabolism 77 fluid volume as a result of hyperaldosteronism or inap- in both preclinical and clinical studies. All clinically propriate antidiuretic hormone secretion can result in available aminoglycosides including gentamicin, mild hypomagnesemia. Also topically administered for extensive burn postobstructive, osmotic diuresis, and recovery from injury, neomycin can cause classical metabolic triad postischemic injury of transplanted kidney . Even Hypercalcemia symptomatic hypomagnesemia as a complication of Hypercalcemia directly induces renal Mg2+ wasting, accepted 3–5 mg kg–1 day–1 standard dose regimen is the effect that is clearly observed in patients with relatively rare; asymptomatic hypomagnesemia can malignant bone metastases . Nephrotoxicity is a well-appreciated com- Diuretics plication of cisplatin toxicity . Some patients may develop per- syndrome do not cause significant hypermagnesuria manent tubular damage manifesting with hypoka- and hypomagnesemia (see Sect. Carboplatin, an analog of cisplatin, cations can induce specific tubular defect resulting in appears to be less nephrotoxic and rarely causes acute hypermagnesuria. Prospective study of 651 Aminoglycosides cause tubular damage that typi- pediatric patients treated with either cisplatin or car- cally presents with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and boplatin in combination with ifosfamide demonstrated hypomagnesemia [11, 24, 34, 40]. In all groups, continuation of the antibiotic treatment and persist for the frequency of hypomagnesemia was decreasing several months. Most reported adult patients who were during the follow-up period of 2 years, but serum mag- treated with high total dose of aminoglycosides had nesium remained lower in platinum-treated patients in normal therapeutic levels suggesting that cumulative the end of the study . However, normal cumulative dose does jor side effect of this potent antifungal medication. Mg2+ vary from asymptomatic cases to generalized convul- loss does not correlate with trough cyclosporine levels sions in early childhood. Laboratory findings include , most likely, because of poor correlation between hypermagnesuria, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria cyclosporine trough levels and area under the curve without any other electrolyte abnormalities. In contrast, tacrolimus trough level is a good a genetic locus in the autosomal recessive form has predictor of the drug area under the curve , and not been yet identified, in the autosomal dominant tacrolimus-induced magnesium urine loss correlates form a locus was mapped to chromosome 11q23. Nephrocalcinosis and renal stones resulting from hypercalciuria are the Inherited Tubular Defects of Magnesium Handling major clinical findings. Nephrocalcinosis-related renal Bartter syndrome includes a group of inherited disor- insufficiency, distal acidification, and concentrating ders characterized by chloride wasting, hypo-kalemic defects have been also described. This syndrome Affected children usually present with failure to thrive is also associated with frequent ocular abnormalities in infancy or early childhood. Classic Bartter syndrome including corneal calcifications, choreoretinitis, kera- is caused by inactivation mutation of gene coding for toconus, and macular coloboma. Paracellin-1 is a member of the claudin or Barttin, are rarely associated with disturbances of family of tight junction proteins, which is expressed magnesium homeostasis [33, 39]. Paracellin-1 is also Gitelman’s syndrome is a variant of Bartter syn- known as claudin-16; both names are used in the litera- drome characterized by potassium and magnesium ture that can be confusing. Paracellin-1 gene expression is also shown patients and present after the age of 6 years with in cornea and retinal epithelium in animals explaining metabolic abnormalities including mild hypokalemic the link with ocular abnormalities observed in some metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocal- patients [34, 39, 42]. Some patients can be asymptomatic and oth- Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia results from ers complain of transient episodes of weakness, tetany, activating mutation of calcium-sensing receptor. Normal values of urine mag- nesium to creatinine ratio in different age groups are 5. In contrast to other electrolytes, the plasma magnesium concentration Monitoring of magnesium status becomes a routine is not always a routine screening blood test. It is reason- nutrition should contain magnesium; otherwise, these able to perform serum magnesium screening in most patients are prone to develop hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia is defined most patients, hypomagnesemia can be prevented as a decrease in serum Mg2+ concentration to levels less by sufficient daily magnesium supplementation than 1. Can the for example, due to low intake and increased gastroin- etiologic factor(s) be withdrawn or ameliorated? Is the patient symptomatic with regard to magne- remains unclear, the differential diagnosis between renal sium depletion? Furthermore, since plasma magnesium 1–10 years 150–250 mg concentration is the major regulator of magnesium 11–18 years 300–400 mg renal handling, acute rise in magnesium concentration >18 years 300–400 mg results in hypermagnesuria with loss of up to 50% of infused magnesium . Therefore, slow continuous Pregnant/lactating +150 mg intravenous infusion over 24 h is effective and safe. The dose may be repeated or adjusted to maintain serum Mg2+ concentration above 1–1. Thus, once started magnesium reple- entiate if these electrolyte abnormalities result from tion should be continued for 3–7 days despite normal magnesium deficit or independent of magnesium renal blood magnesium concentration [1, 34]. For example, hypokalemia is often associated adverse effects of fast magnesium repletion are due to with hypomagnesemia and can result from the tubu- development of hypermagnesemia. Thus, in some cases dif- of deep tendon reflexes can be used in nonparalyzed ferentiation may be practically impossible. In addition, intravenous administration Obviously, symptomatic magnesium depletion needs of magnesium sulfate results in decrease in plasma repletion. The importance of treating asymptomatic Ca2+ concentration due to binding of Ca2+ and sulfate hypomagnesemia remains controversial. Therefore, in case of concurrent hypocalcemia recommend to replete any hypomagnesemic patient calcium replacement should precede the magnesium with significant underlying cardiac disease, convulsive repletion. Another disadvantage of magnesium sulfate disorder, or concurrent hypokalemia or hypocalcemia. Multiple oral Mg2+ salts are avail- ing patient should be given magnesium intravenously able. Bioavailability of oral magnesium preparations is (2–5 mg kg–1 of elemental magnesium) over 8–24 h. Patients on magnesium replacement therapy should be monitored for magnesium, potassium, cal- 5. Mild to moderate hypermagnesemia can be occasionally observed in patients with familial hypocalciuric hyper- 5. Spontaneous return to normal values occurs regulated mainly by magnesium serum concentration. Whether hypermagnesemia plays a patho- Increased magnesium load results in decreased Mg 2+ physiological role in asphyxic child remains unknown.
Examples of notes are: • Information on any access requirements/limitations Box 125 continues on next page purchase amoxil 500 mg fast delivery varicella zoster virus. amoxil 250mg cheap infection 4 months after tooth extraction. cheap amoxil uk virus del nilo. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle-tips [review] order amoxil cheap antimicrobial hand wash. Contribution to a database on the Internet with a note Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet 1. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet without a separate date for the item Kadonaga J. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with a separate date for the item Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle- tips [review]. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. Contribution to a database on the Internet with organization as author British Cardiovascular Intervention Society. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. Diagnostiek en classifcatie van orofaciale pijnen in de eerste lijn [Diagnosis and classifcation of orofacial pain by dental and general practitioners]. Bases neurofsiologicas del dolor: dolor referido [Neurophysiological basis of pain: referred pain]. Contribution to a database on the Internet with date of update/ revision Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent provided by the database Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent calculated Jordan S, Schnepf M, Boeckner L. Contribution to a database on the Internet with an acquisition number Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Accurate measurements of dynamics and reproducibility in small genetic networks [dataset]. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle- tips [review]. Homepages • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples B. Parts of Web Sites • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples A. Homepages are placed on the Internet by both organizations and individuals for purposes ranging from an efort to provide information about a government agency, a company, an association, or a specifc subject, to a means of providing a forum for a personal point of view. Homepages vary greatly in size and complexity, refecting the Web site which they introduce. A citation to a Web site is made primarily from the information found on a homepage. Locate the author or organization with responsibility for the homepage, a title, a place of publication, a publisher, and a date of publication. Internet sites disappear with great 1758 Citing Medicine frequency, and users of a citation must be given some other identifying information if they are to locate sites in the future. For example, some poorly constructed sites do not contain dates, and authorship or publishing responsibility may be unclear or absent. Some elements require expansion for an Internet citation to provide needed information. For example, the date of publication is required in a citation, but most homepages are updated or otherwise modifed numerous times afer the date of publication, i. Te latest date of update/revision should therefore be included along with the date cited, i. Tis is necessary in the volatile Internet environment, where changes can be easily made and a site seen one day may not be the same when viewed the next day. Producing a print or other copy of crucial pages for future reference is strongly recommended. To cite only one component of a Web site, such as a specifc page or pages, frst determine whether or not the component can stand alone and be cited separately. A book or other monograph, a journal, or a database on a Web site should be cited according to the instructions for the particular type of format. Cite a book on a Web site according to Chapter 22, a journal according to Chapter 23, and a database according to Chapter 24. Never cite as parts those components with authorship distinct from the authors of the site as a whole. If in doubt about the status of a component, cite it separately using the instructions in the appropriate chapter. Citation Rules with Examples for Homepages Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Author (R) | Author Afliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Homepages (required) General Rules for Author • List names in the order they appear on the site • Enter surname (family or last name) frst for each author • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. When they do not: • Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the frst screen or the bottom of the last screen of the homepage • Do not assume that an individual named as Web master or contact person is the author; he or she most probably is not, especially for sites produced by large organizations • Do not assume that an individual named in association with a copyright statement, such as "copyright 1997 by John A. In such cases when the organization appears to be serving as both author and publisher, place the organization in the publisher position. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon and a space. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini E (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy), Rebora P, Reina G.
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